ce399 | research archive: (electronic) mind control

Using Lasers to Map Ancient Civilization, in a Matter of Days (NY Times 11/5/10)

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 18/06/2010

For a quarter of a century, two archaeologists and their team slogged through wild tropical vegetation to investigate and map the remains of one of the largest Maya cities, in Central America. Slow, sweaty hacking with machetes seemed to be the only way to discover the breadth of an ancient urban landscape now hidden beneath a dense forest canopy.

Even the new remote-sensing technologies, so effective in recent decades at surveying other archaeological sites, were no help. Imaging radar and multispectral surveys by air and from space could not “see” through the trees.

Then, in the dry spring season a year ago, the husband-and-wife team of Arlen F. Chase and Diane Z. Chase tried a new approach using airborne laser signals that penetrate the jungle cover and are reflected from the ground below. They yielded 3-D images of the site of ancient Caracol, in Belize, one of the great cities of the Maya lowlands.

In only four days, a twin-engine aircraft equipped with an advanced version of lidar (light detection and ranging) flew back and forth over the jungle and collected data surpassing the results of two and a half decades of on-the-ground mapping, the archaeologists said. After three weeks of laboratory processing, the almost 10 hours of laser measurements showed topographic detail over an area of 80 square miles, notably settlement patterns of grand architecture and modest house mounds, roadways and agricultural terraces.

“We were blown away,” Dr. Diane Chase said recently, recalling their first examination of the images. “We believe that lidar will help transform Maya archaeology much in the same way that radiocarbon dating did in the 1950s and interpretations of Maya hieroglyphs did in the 1980s and ’90s.”

The Chases, who are professors of anthropology at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, had determined from earlier surveys that Caracol extended over a wide area in its heyday, between A.D. 550 and 900. From a ceremonial center of palaces and broad plazas, it stretched out to industrial zones and poor neighborhoods and beyond to suburbs of substantial houses, markets and terraced fields and reservoirs.

This picture of urban sprawl led the Chases to estimate the city’s population at its peak at more than 115,000. But some archaeologists doubted the evidence warranted such expansive interpretations.

“Now we have a totality of data and see the entire landscape,” Dr. Arlen Chase said of the laser findings. “We know the size of the site, its boundaries, and this confirms our population estimates, and we see all this terracing and begin to know how the people fed themselves.”

The Caracol survey was the first application of the advanced laser technology on such a large archaeological site. Several journal articles describe the use of lidar in the vicinity of Stonehenge in England and elsewhere at an Iron Age fort and American plantation sites. Only last year, Sarah H. Parcak of the University of Alabama at Birmingham predicted, “Lidar imagery will have much to offer the archaeology of the rain forest regions.”

The Chases said they had been unaware of Dr. Parcak’s assessment, in her book “Satellite Remote Sensing for Archaeology” (Routledge, 2009), when they embarked on the Caracol survey. They acted on the recommendation of a Central Florida colleague, John F. Weishampel, a biologist who had for years used airborne laser sensors to study forests and other vegetation.

Dr. Weishampel arranged for the primary financing of the project from the little-known space archaeology program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The flights were conducted by the National Science Foundation’s National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping, operated by the University of Florida and the University of California, Berkeley.

Other archaeologists, who were not involved in the research but were familiar with the results, said the technology should be a boon to explorations, especially ones in the tropics, with its heavily overgrown vegetation, including pre-Columbian sites throughout Mexico and Central America. But they emphasized that it would not obviate the need to follow up with traditional mapping to establish “ground truth.”

Jeremy A. Sabloff, a former director of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology and now president of the Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico, said he wished he had had lidar when he was working in the Maya ruins at Sayil, in Mexico.

The new laser technology, Dr. Sabloff said, “would definitely have speeded up our mapping, given us more details and would have enabled us to refine our research questions and hypotheses much earlier in our field program than was possible in the 1980s.”

At first, Payson D. Sheets, a University of Colorado archaeologist, was not impressed with lidar. A NASA aircraft tested the laser system over his research area in Costa Rica, he said, “but when I saw it recorded the water in a lake sloping at 14 degrees, I did not use it again.”

Now, after examining the imagery from Caracol, Dr. Sheets said he planned to try lidar, with its improved technology, again. “I was stunned by the crisp precision and fine-grained resolution,” he said.

“Finally, we have a nondestructive and rapid means of documenting the present ground surface through heavy vegetation cover,” Dr. Sheets said, adding, “One can easily imagine, given the Caracol success, how important this would be in Southeast Asia, with the Khmer civilization at places like Angkor Wat.”

In recent reports at meetings of Mayanists and in interviews, the Chases noted that previous remote-sensing techniques focused more on the discovery of archaeological sites than on the detailed imaging of on-ground remains. The sensors could not see through much of the forest to resolve just how big the ancient cities had been. As a consequence, archaeologists may have underestimated the scope of Mayan accomplishments.

For the Caracol survey, the aircraft flew less than a half-mile above the terrain at the end of the dry season, when foliage is less dense. The Airborne Laser Terrain Mapper, as the specific advanced system is named, issued steady light pulses along 62 north-south flight lines and 60 east-west lines. This reached to what appeared to be the fringes of the city’s outer suburbs and most agricultural terraces, showing that the urban expanse encompassed at least 70 square miles.

Not all the laser pulses transmitted from the aircraft made it to the surface. Some were reflected by the tops of trees. But enough reached the ground and were reflected back to the airborne instruments. These signals, measured and triangulated by GPS receivers and processed by computers, produced images of the surface contours. This revealed distinct patterns of building ruins, causeways and other human modifications of the landscape.

The years the Chases spent on traditional explorations at Caracol laid the foundation for confirming the effectiveness of the laser technology. Details in the new images clearly matched their maps of known structures and cultural features, the archaeologists said. When the teams returned to the field, they used the laser images to find several causeways, terraced fields and many ruins they had overlooked.

The Chases said the new research demonstrates how a large, sustainable agricultural society could thrive in a tropical environment and thus account for the robust Maya civilization in its classic period from A.D. 250 to 900.

“This will revolutionize the way we do settlement studies of the Maya,” Dr. Arlen Chase said on returning from this spring’s research at Caracol.

Lidar is not expected to have universal application. Dr. Sheets said that, for example, it would not be useful at his pre-Columbian site at Cerén, in El Salvador. The ancient village and what were its surrounding manioc fields are buried under many feet of volcanic ash, beyond laser detection.

Other modern technologies, including radar and satellite imaging, are already proving effective in the land beyond the temples at Angkor, in Cambodia, and in surveys of the Nile delta and ancient irrigation systems in Iraq.

Laser signals breaking through jungle cover are only the newest form of remote sensing in the pursuit of knowledge of past cultures, which began in earnest about a century ago with the advent of aerial photography. Charles Lindbergh drew attention to its application in archaeology with picture-taking flights over unexplored Pueblo cliff dwellings in the American Southwest.

NASA recently stepped up its promotion of technologies developed for broad surveys of Earth and other planets to be used in archaeological research. Starting with a few preliminary tests over the years, the agency has now established a formal program for financing archaeological remote-sensing projects by air and space.

“We’re not looking for monoliths on the Moon,” joked Craig Dobson, manager of the NASA space archaeology program.

Every two years, Dr. Dobson said, NASA issues several three-year grants for the use of remote sensing at ancient sites. In addition to the Caracol tests, the program is supporting two other Maya research efforts, surveys of settlement patterns in North Africa and Mexico and reconnaissance of ancient ruins in the Mekong River Valley and around Angkor Wat.

Nothing like a latter-day Apollo project, of course, but the archaeology program is growing, Dr. Dobson said, and will soon double in size, to an annual budget of $1 million.


List of Mind Control Symptoms (Mind Justice : Cheryl Welsh 2003)

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 18/06/2010

List of mind control symptoms, whether the related technology is scientifically proven and if there is military interest or funding of the related technology

by Cheryl Welsh, March, 2003

Thank you to those who sent me much of this information:
Tessa Puglia, Harlan Girard, Margo Cherney, and John Ginter.

Mind Justice Home Page


* Microwave hearing
* Transmission of specific commands into the subconscious
* Visual disturbances, visual hallucinations
* Inject words, numbers into brain via electromagnetic radiation waves
* Manipulation of emotions
* Reading thoughts remotely
* Causing pain to any nerve of the body.
* Remote manipulation of human behavior from space
* Harassment, stress symptoms such as helicopters flying overhead
* Seeing, as in a camera, through your eyes, i.e. to see what you see exactly
* Control of sleep patterns.
* Computer-brain interface, control and communication
* Complex control of the brain such as retrieving memories, implanting personalities


1.  Microwave hearing. The hearing of voices in the head from an outside source, but nobody else can hear the voices except the targeted individual.

Scientifically Proven

1.  Yes. Ultrascience III, Spies are us. Featured Dr. James C. Lin, Ph.D.. biomedical and electrical engineer, educator, author of Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications, 1978. Lin demonstrated microwave hearing, a symptom of many of the victims, hearing voices. Also featured Cheryl Welsh on the issue of mind control experimentation. International Defense Review, 3-1-93, Special Operations Survives Pentagon budget Constraints, Ramon Lopez. “JASORS, Joint Advanced Special Operations Radio System is being developed by Harris Corporation. …is a very ambitious, leading-edge technology program, …Whiles JASORS is a near-term SOF, (Special Operations Forces) enhancement, SORDAC,(Special Operations Research Development and Acquisition Center), is also investigating long-range (1998-2010) and “far-future” (2011 and beyond) weaponry and support equipment. [SORDAC’s director, Army Colonel Douglas J.] Richardson said one far-future communications system being investigated is “synthetic telepathy.” One day, SOF commandos may be capable of communicating through thought processes.”

Margo Cherney FOIA request for complete NASA abstract Report Number: AD-A090426.,June 1, 1980. Brooks Air Force Base, Jan.25, 2000. The requested information is fully denied under 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1)…” NASA abstract in part stated, “A decoy and deception concept presently being considered is to remotely create the perception of noise in the heads of personnel by exposing them to low power, pulsed microwave. When people are illuminated with properly modulated low power microwaves the sensation is reported as a buzzing, clicking, or hissing which seems to originate (regardless of the person’s position in the field) within or just behind the head. The phenomena occurs at average power densities as low as microwatts per square centimeter with carrier frequencies from 0.4 to 3.0 GHz. By proper choice of pulse characteristics, intelligible speech may be created. Before this technique may be extended and used for military applications, an understanding of the basic principles must be developed. Such an understanding is not only required to optimize the use of the concept for camouflage, decoy and deception operations but is required to properly assess safety factors of such microwave exposure.”

Microwave News, editor, Louis Slesin, Jan/Feb 1997 p 14. U.S. Air Force Looks to the Battlefields of the Future: Electromagnetic Fields That Might “Boggle the Mind “It would also appear possible to create high fidelity speech in the human body, raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction. When a high power microwave pulse in the GHz range strikes the human body, a very small temperature perturbation occurs. This is associated with a sudden expansion of the slightly heated tissue. This expansion is fast enough to produce an acoustic wave. If a pulse stream is used, it should be possible to create an internal acoustic field in the 5-15 kHz range, which is audible. Thus it may be possible to “talk” to selected adversaries in a fashion that would be most disturbing to them.”

Federal Times, Dec. 13, 1976 Microwave Weapons Study by Soviets Cited. The Defense Intelligence Agency has released a report on heavy Communist research on microwaves, including their use as weapons. Microwaves are used in radar, television and microwave ovens. They can cause disorientation and possibly heart attacks in humans. Another biological effect with possible anti-personnel uses is “microwave hearing.” “Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating intracranially (within the head) can be induced by signal modulation at very low average power densities,” the report said. According to the study, Communist work in this area “has great potential for development into a system for disorienting or disrupting the behavior patterns of military or diplomatic personnel.” No mention was made of the still-unexplained microwave bombardment of the American Embassy in Moscow. The study dealt largely with long-term exposure of days or weeks in industrial situations, which usually produce mild effects. Short exposure to intense radiation can cause heart seizure and a wide range of physical disorders.

Military interest or funding

1.  Yes. See above.


2.  Transmission of specific commands into the subconscious

Scientifically proven

2.  Yes. Defense News, US Explores Russian Mind Control Technology by Barbara Opall January, 11-17-1993, p. 4. “Pioneered by the government-funded Department of Psycho-Correction at the Moscow Medical Academy, acoustic psycho-correction involves the transmission of specific commands via static or whitenoise bands into the human subconscious without upsetting other intellectual functions. Experts said laboratory demonstrations have shown encouraging results after exposure of less than one minute.

Janet Morris, reported in book Shukman, David. The sorcerer’s challenge : fears and hopes for the weapons of the next millennium, David Shukman. London : Hodder & Stoughton, page 223. Demonstration on BBC television on news program entitled Newsnight by David Shukman, (tape available on request).

U.S. News, 1-3-2000, John Norseen, Reading and changing your mind. [Lockheed Martin neuroengineer in Intelligent Systems Division] Norseen’s interest in the brain stems from a Soviet book he read in the mid-1980s, claiming that research on the mind would revolutionize the military and society at large. [He] coined the term “Biofusion” to cover his plans to map and manipulate [the brain] leading to advances in …national security… and …would be able to convert thoughts into computer commands by deciphering the brain’s electrical activity. BioFusion would reveal the fingerprints of the brain by using mathematical models, [Smirnov’s computer program uses mathematical models also]. It sound crazy,…The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, …have all awarded…research contracts to Norseen. Norseen is waiting to hear if the second stage of these contracts-portions of them classified- comes through. Norseen’s theories are grounded in current science. …By MRI, scientists can tell what the person was doing at the time of the recording…Emotions from love to hate can be recognized from the brain’s electrical activity. …Norseen predicts profiling by brain print will be in place by 2005. …Norseen would like to draw upon Russian brain-mimicking software and American brain -mapping breakthroughs to allow that communication to take place in a less invasive way. A modified helmut could record a pilot’s brainwaves. “When you say right 090 degrees…the computer would see that electrical pattern in the brain and turn the plane 090 degrees. If the pilot misheard instructions to turn 090 degrees and was thinking “080 degrees,” the helmut would detect the error, then inject the right number via electromagnetic waves.”

Military interest or funding

2.  Yes, Defense Electronics, DOD, Intel Agencies Look at Russian Mind Control… by Mark Tapscott, July, 1993 p. 17. “In a series of closed meetings…FBI officials were briefed on the decade-long research on a computerized acoustic device allegedly capable of implanting thoughts in a person’s mind without that person being aware of the thought.”

Also, US corp. buys Russian mind control equipment.


3.  Visual disturbances, visual hallucinations.

Scientifically proven

3.  Yes. A demonstration by Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher and Dr. William van Bise, directed magnetic signals into the brain of reporter Chuck DeCaro. They created visual images as in a hallucination. This program features Dr. Robert O. Becker, two time Nobel prize nominee, scientist and researcher of electromagnetic radiation effects on the body and author of Body Electric, summarized, “The government has never disproved the psychological effects of electromagnetic radiation. “Dr. Robert Becker commented “that this is a substantial step forward in the understanding how the visual system works” and would be a powerful weapon if used on fighter pilots while trying to fly. For a 55$ copy of this tape call CNN at 404 827 2712 and ask for R2501 #13, R2747 #33, R2501 #15, R2501-#17. It runs about 20 minutes.

Military interest or funding

3.  Yes. See above.


4.  Inject words, numbers into brain via emr waves

Scientifically proven

4. Yes in Russia. Defense News, US Explores Russian Mind Control Technology by Barbara Opall January, 11-17-1993, p. 4. “Experts said laboratory demonstrations have shown encouraging results after exposure of less than one minute.”

U.S. News, 1-3-2000, John Norseen, Reading and changing your mind. [Lockheed Martin neuroengineer in Intelligent Systems Division] Norseen’s interest in the brain stems from a Soviet book he read in the mid-1980s, claiming that research on the mind would revolutionize the military and society at large. [He] coined the term “Biofusion” to cover his plans to map and manipulate [the brain] leading to advances in …national security… and …would be able to convert thoughts into computer commands by deciphering the brain’s electrical activity. BioFusion would reveal the fingerprints of the brain by using mathematical models, [Smirnov’s computer program uses mathematical models also]. It sound crazy,…The National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, …have all awarded…research contracts to Norseen. Norseen is waiting to hear if the second stage of these contracts-portions of them classified- comes through. Norseen’s theories are grounded in current science. …By MRI, scientists can tell what the person was doing at the time of the recording…Emotions from love to hate can be recognized from the brain’s electrical activity. …Norseen predicts profiling by brain print will be in place by 2005. …Norseen would like to draw upon Russian brain-mimicking software and American brain -mapping breakthroughs to allow that communication to take place in a less invasive way. A modified helmut could record a pilot’s brainwaves. “When you say right 090 degrees…the computer would see that electrical pattern in the brain and turn the plane 090 degrees. If the pilot misheard instructions to turn 090 degrees and was thinking “080 degrees,” the helmet would detect the error, then inject the right number via electromagnetic waves.”

Yes in US, but classified. Lobster Magazine, Mind Control and the American Government by Martin Cannon, Number 23. J.F. Schapitz was conducting classified work on microwaving the subconscious with commands as in hypnosis. This work is classified.

Military interest or funding

4.  Yes, Defense News, US Explores Russian Mind Control Technology by Barbara Opall January, 11-17-1993, p. 4. “Moreover, decades of research and investment of untold millions of rubles in the process of psycho-correction has produced the ability to alter behavior on willing and unwilling subjects, the experts add. …Russian senior research scientist, diplomats, …are beginning to provide limited demonstrations for their U.S. counterparts. Further evaluations of key technologies in the United States are being planned, as are discussions aimed at creating a frame-work for bringing the issue under bilateral or multilateral controls, U.S. and Russian sources say.”


5.  Manipulation of emotions

Scientifically proven

5.  Yes. Ultrascience, Weapons of War, Learning Channel, 1997, Featured Dr. Michael Persinger, Laurentian University, Canada. Dr. Persinger described weapons using “psycho or influence technology” and electromagnetic radiation frequencies to control what people think, for psychological warfare purposes.

Ultrascience, War 2020, Beyond Productions, Learning Channel, 1998, Dr. Michael Persinger, Laurentian University performed a demonstration of a helmut with solenoids which induce magnetic fields into the brain and cause panic, fear, God and UFO experiences. He stated that with current technology it is possible to use mind control on the mass populations.

Military interest or funding

5.  Yes. See above.


6.  Reading thoughts remotely

Scientifically proven

6.  No, but famous neuroscientist warns that remote neural monitoring equipment is “far from being science fiction” and can be used for “control of behaviour and brainwashing” and …will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance.”

Nature/Vol 391/22Januray 1998
Advances in neuroscience ‘may threaten human rights
By Declan Butler

…at the annual public meeting of the French national bioethics committee held last week in Paris… Jean-Pierre Changeux, the chairman of the committee and a neuroscientist at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, told the meeting that understanding the working of the human brain is likely to become one of the most ambitious and rich disciplines of the future. But neuroscience also poses potential risks, he said, arguing that advances in cerebral imaging make the scope for invasion of privacy immense. Although the equipment needed is still highly specialized, it will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance, he predicted. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of personal liberty, control of behaviour and brainwashing. These are far from being science-fiction concerns, said Changeux, and constitute “a serious risk to society”. “Denis LeBihan, a researcher at the French Atomic Energy Commission, told the meeting that the use of imaging techniques has reached the stage where “we can almost read people’s thoughts”.

6.  Yes. In the article, Decoding Minds, Signal Magazine, October, 2001, Dr. John D. Norseen, of Lockheed Martin stated , “We are at the point where this database has been developed enough that we can use a single electrode or something like an airport security system where there is a dome above our head to get enough information that we can know the number you’re thinking,” According to US News and World Report

U.S News and World Report, Jan 3-10, 2000, John Norseen, Reading your mind and injecting smart thoughts by Douglas Pasternak, p. 67 “…Norseen’s theories are grounded in current science.”

The Washington Times, August 17, 2002, the article entitled NASA plans to read terrorist’s minds at airport stated,

Airport security screeners may soon try to read the minds of travelers to identify terrorists. Officials of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have told Northwest Airlines security specialists that the agency is developing brain-monitoring devices in cooperation with a commercial firm, which it did not identify. Space technology would be adapted to receive and analyze brain-wave and heartbeat patterns, then feed that data into computerized programs ‘to detect passengers who potentially might pose a threat,’ according to briefing documents obtained by The Washington Times. NASA wants to use ‘noninvasive neuro-electric sensors,’ imbedded in gates, to collect tiny electric signals that all brains and hearts transmit. Computers would apply statistical algorithms to correlate physiologic patterns with computerized data on travel routines, criminal background and credit information from ‘hundreds to thousands of data sources,’ NASA documents say. …Robert Park, spokesman for the American Physical Society stated, ‘We’re close to the point where they can tell to an extent what you’re thinking about by which part of the brain is activated, which is close to reading your mind. …The idea is plausible, he says, but frightening’.

Here are a few examples of the advanced state of technology. Science Digest 7-84 page 30 stated Thomas Jensen, of Chicago’s Rush-Presbyterian St. Luke’s Medical Center, and Donald York “have discovered that just before a person says a particular word, the brain emits waves peculiar to that word alone. …These waves are the same from person to person.”

Dr. Richard Clark at the Flinders University of South Australia wrote the following in Think, Sept/Oct 92. Artificial neural network computer programs are used “to include the ability to learn and recognize simple patterns of thought from the electrical fields of the brain.”

Science Digest 10-81 entitled Machines that read Minds by Gary Selden stated that “Indeed, CIA spokespeople have admitted ‘following’ ERP[This is the waveform that the brain characteristically emits after absorbing an external event] research, perhaps the way the agency followed LSD research in the 1950s. …With remote monitors, such an instrument would be a spy’s dream.” It is naive to think that the CIA has not exploited this research.

In Nature, 1-22-98 Denis Le Bihan, a researcher at the French Atomic Energy Commission, he stated “we can almost read people’s thoughts”. The national bioethics committee is taking such threats so seriously that it is launching a study. The title of this article was Advances in neuroscience may threaten human rights.

Even in the unclassified sector, new technology includes surveillance for ‘abnormal behavior’ in order to alert security personnel of criminal behavior such as a car break in.. New Scientist, 12-11-99 Vol. 164, No. 2216 page 25 by Graham-Rowe, Ducan, described the technology as a computer programmed under the notion that most people behave in predictable ways when walking to their car. This behavior is transferred into a mathematical pattern and the computer recognizes it as such. “Anyone who deviates from this set pattern, such as someone who walks in circles or who lurks in shadows, will set off an alarm…” This is just a small example of human behavior and how it is studied scientifically. No doubt with the political will and the money of national security defense, as victims are alleging, human behavior has been studied and is controlled by government technology.

Military interest or funding

6.  Yes, government funded. U.S News and World Report, Jan 3-10, 2000, John Norseen, Reading your mind and injecting smart thoughts by Douglas Pasternak, p. 67 “…It sounds crazy, but Uncles Sam is listening. the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Army’s National Ground Intelligence Center have all awarded small basic research contracts to Norseen, who works for Lockheed-Martin’s Intelligent Systems Division. Norseen is waiting to hear if the second stage of these contracts -portions of them classified-come through.


7.  Causing pain to any nerve of the body

Scientifically proven

7.  Bulletin of Atomic Scientist, Sept 1994, Softkill Fallacy by Steve Aftergood, Page 45. Barbara Hatch Rosenberg writes: “Many of the non-lethal weapons under consideration utilize infrasound or electromagnetic energy (including lasers, microwave or radio-frequency radiation, or visible light pulsed at brain-wave frequency) for their effects. These weapons are said to cause temporary or permanent blinding, interference with mental processes, modification of behavior and emotional response, seizures, severe pain, dizziness, nausea and diarrhea, or disruption of internal organ functions in various other ways.

Numerous other articles on nonlethal weapons, see CAHRA [now Mind Justice] website: mindjustice.org [updated 2-04]

The People Zapper, heating weapon, demonstrated by military. Other technology very heavily discussed since the 1990s. See Marine Corps Times, The People Zapper, C. Mark Brinkley, March 5, 2001, p. 10. “…focuses energy into a beam of micromillimeter waves designed to stop an individual in his tracks. …The energy, which falls near microwaves on the electromagnetic spectrum, causes moisture in a person’s skin to heat up rapidly, creating a burning sensation…”

Military Interest or funding

7.  Yes, government funding and very heavily discussed.


8.  Remote manipulation of human behavior from space

Scientifically proven

8.  Yes. Dodge, Glaser, Radiation Bioeffects Research, Journal of Microwave Power, 12(4) 1977, p. 320. “The information explosion in this field has been quite dramatic since 1969, when the international data base was estimated to consist of less than 1,000 citations. In addition to maintaining inventories of the literature, we have undertaken from time to time to provide assessments of international trends in research, development, and occupational health and safety. In the present paper, we will concentrate on events which have transpired since our last review effort in 1975. Major events which have taken place during that period include: …(5) Unpublished analyses of microwave bioeffects literature which were disseminated to Congress and to other officials arguing the case for remote control of human behavior by radar;

Psychotronic Arms Potential Must be Monitored, Member of the Russian Federation of Space Exploration Scientific and Technical Council, Anatoliy Pushenko in Moscow Rabochaya Tribuna, Nov. 26, 1994, FBIS, Ref # MM3011130594 ” A prominent specialist speaks for the first time in our press in Rabochaya Tribuna about psychotropic weapons, which started to be developed in the sixties–space-based energy systems capable of killing every living thing on the planet and driving millions of people crazy. … There are frequencies that are beneficial to people. But naturally there are also those which are hazardous. …That is, it has a direct physical effect on the human brain. … The terrible danger of psychotropic weapons is the possibility of their simultaneously and unequivocally affecting large masses of people over huge areas.

Moscow Armeyskiy Sbornik, Russia: National Information Security by Russian Major General, Valeriy Menshikov, doctor of technical sciences, and Colonel Boris Rodionov., Oct. 96, No. 10. P. 88-98, FBIS, Russian article, Mori DocID: 587170 “…Thus, the new space systems are potentially dangerous from the aspect of unfolding a wide-scale ‘information war’ and even creating global systems for controlling people’s behavior in any region, …”Also, scientists, weapons experts, EU members on U.S HAARP Project, FBIS article by Alain Gossens: Apocalypse Now? HAARP… report from Brussels Telemoustique, 1997, FBIS MoriDocID 587140, “Are the Americans currently developing a vast weapons system capable of scanning the entrails of the earth to seek out secret bases, jamming any form of radio communications, influencing human behavior… Nevertheless, if one is aware of the fact that the real sponsors are the Navy, the Air force, and the Department of Defense, then it is hard to believe that it is not a project for military purposes.”

Military interest or funding

8.  Probably. But scientifically sound. See tracking of airplanes, tracking by GPS. Satellites capable of taking pictures of license plates, etc.


9.  Harassment, stress symptoms such as helicopters flying overhead

Scientifically proven

9.  Yes. Shukman, David. The sorcerer’s challenge : fears and hopes for the weapons of the next millennium, London : Hodder & Stoughton, 1995, P. 225 “The best they [FBI] they could do was to maintain a barrage of noise with helicopters and loudspeakers to keep the followers awake and to try to undermine their [Koresh and follower’s} morale.”

This quote is from Aviation Week & Space Technology 1-19-98 p.55 on information warfare and US capabilities. “…techniques as esoteric as ‘mapping the psychological and cognitive makeup’ of foreign leaders or key groups in order to predict reactions to manipulated information, …” . And the follow up story, on 3-9-98, page 21 stated that [USAF Gen. John] “Jumper talked about tools that could…make potential enemies see, hear and believe things that don’t exist” The military is discussing the deployment of weapons to do just that, create symptoms of mental illness. And yet this information is not taken seriously by professionals and has not been accepted as relevant to victim’s allegations.

Excerpts from CAHRA [now Mind Justice] website military journals and government document quotes: “…to control the will and perception of adversaries …by applying a regime of shock and awe…It is about effecting behavior.” “A decoy and deception concept [using microwaves] to “create intelligible speech ‘ in the head, ‘raising the possibility of covert suggestion and psychological direction.” “tools that could…make potential enemies see, hear and believe things that don’t exist.” “…crowd control and urban warfare devices that temporarily could paralyze an entire village.”

Military interest and funding

9.  Yes. See above.


10.  Seeing, as in a camera, through your eyes, i.e. to see what you see exactly

Scientifically proven

10.  Proven in animals. BBC News Online Oct 11, 1999, Looking Through Cats’ Eyes Fuzzy But Recognizable, Dr. David Whitehouse, http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/sci/tech/newsid 471000/471786.stm A BBC News article reported on the first pictures from an experiment to see through the eyes of a cat.

Military interest and feasibility

10.  No.


11.  Control of sleep patterns

Scientifically proven

11.  Proven on animals. # CNN news broadcast, Special Assignment, Nov.-1985, by Chuck DeCaro, Weapons of War, Is there an RF Gap? Dr. Ross Adey discussed a demonstration of the 1950s Russian Lida machine, which used electromagnetic energy to put Russian psychiatric patients to sleep, as a substitute for tranquilizers and to treat neurotic disturbances. Dr. Adey stated that it worked on cats and dogs and put them to sleep. The Defense and Foreign Affairs Daily, Jun 7, 1983, Vol. XII, Number 104, Psy-War: Soviet Device Experiment by Dr. Stefan T. Possony reported: “…Dr. Ross Adey, chief of research at Loma Linda…started testing the machine [the Lida]…the device is on loan to Dr. Ross Adey. ‘The machine is technically described as ‘a distant pulse treatment apparatus. It generates 40 megahertz radiowaves which stimulate the brain’s electromagnetic activity at substantially lower frequencies”

Military interest or funding

11.  Yes. . The Defense and Foreign Affairs Daily, Jun 7, 1983, Vol. XII, Number 104, Psy-War: Soviet Device Experiment by Dr. Stefan T. Possony. “…On April 29, 1983 this author, as a participant in a panel at the Defense ’83 conference sponsored by Defense and Foreign Affairs, reported on Dr. Adey’s work…These remarks were delivered to a panel studying psychological warfare.”


12.  Computer-brain interface, control and communication

Scientifically feasible

12.  Yes. APPROPRIATION/BUDGET ACTIVITY RDT&E, Defense-wide BA2 Applied Research R-1 ITEM NOMENCLATURE Computing Systems and Communications Technology PE 0602301E, Project ST-19 The Augmented Cognition (AugCog) program will develop the means to measure a subject’s cognitive state in real time and manipulate it to accomplish the functions. The goal of the Augmented Cognition program is to develop methods that integrate digital devices that support memory, perception, and thinking, and link that support with the user’s context state information to directly improve the overall cognitive performance of the warfighter. The Perceptual Processing Display program focuses on exploiting neuroscience and perceptual processing technologies to redesign devices that deliver information to the human perceptual system. These new devices will be able to extract relevant signal from extraneous background noise, through perceptual modeling. This program will develop technologies that simplify relevant, and eliminate irrelevant, information to improve perception, comprehension, memory, inference, and decision-making. Specifically, this program will demonstrate the manipulation of perceptual data along hundreds of dimensions of the human perceptual system, and will result in the doubling of human information processing performance. http://www.darpa.mil/body/pdf/FY03BudEst.pdf

Military interest

12.  Yes. See above.


13.  Complex control of the brain such as retrieving memories, implanting personalities

Scientifically feasible

13.  Yes. 2002 Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance, A National Science Foundation /U.S. Department of Commerce-sponsored report. Here are relevant excerpts. Full text at http://itri.loyola.edu/ConvergingTechnologies/Report/NBIC_pre_publication.pdf List of Participants and Contributors included NASA, Office of Navel Research, DARPA, Sandia National Labs, USAF Research Labs, Ratheon, Lucent Technologies, MIT and Stanford.2. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication. Page 85. “…Truly, the mind is the final frontier, and unraveling its mysteries will have tremendous practical benefits. …Failure to invest in the necessary multidisciplinary research would delay or even prevent these benefits to the economy, to national security, and to individual well-being. Rapid recent progress in cognitive science and related fields has brought us to the point where we could achieve several breakthroughs that would be of great value to mankind. …For example, progress in the cognitive neuroscience of the human brain has been achieved through new research methodologies, based in both biology and information science, such as functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) and infrared sensors. However, we are reaching the resolution limits of current instrumentation, for example because of concerns about the safety of human research subjects (Food and Drug Administration 1998), so progress will stall quickly unless breakthroughs in NBIC can give us research tools with much greater resolution, sensitivity, and capacity to analyze data.”

3.  Page 86. The Human Cognome Project. “It is time to launch a Human Cognome Project, comparable to the successful Human Genome Project, to chart the structure and functions of the human mind. No project would be more fundamental to progress throughout science and engineering, or would require a more complete unification of NBIC sciences. …While the research would include a complete mapping of the connections in the human brain, it would be far more extensive than neuroscience. …Some participants in the human cognition and communication working group were impressed by the long-term potential for uploading aspects of individual personality to computers and robots, thereby expanding the scope of human experience, action, and longevity.”

4.  Page 88. “Statements and Visions. Participants in the human cognition and communication panel contributed a number of statements, describing the current situation and suggesting strategies for building upon it, as well as transformative visions of what could be accomplished in ten or twenty years through a concentrated effort.”

5.  National Security, Theme Summary. Page 287. “…Investment in convergent nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science [NBIC] is expected to result in innovative technologies that revolutionize many domains of conflict and peacekeeping. …As former Defense Secretary William J. Perry has noted, these are the technological breakthroughs that are “Changing the face of war and how we prepare for war.” There are numerous special programs, reports and presentations that address these goals. The Department of Defense has designated nanoscience as a strategic research area in order to accelerate the expected benefits (Murday 1999). …Applications of brain-machine interface. The convergence of all four NBIC fields will give warfighters the ability to control complex entities by sending control actions prior to thoughts (cognition) being fully formed. The intent is to take brain signals (nanotechnology for augmented sensitivity and nonintrusive signal detection) and use them in a control strategy (information technology), and then impart back into the brain the sensations of feedback signals (biotechnology).”

In Approaching the 21st Century: Opportunities for NIMH Neuroscience Research The National Advisory Mental Health Council Report to Congress on the Decade of the Brain, Jan. 1988 by USHHS. Page 49 stated “Several investigators had noted that when neurons were given brief but intense high-frequency stimulation their electrical properties were changed in ways that would fit those proposed for memory: The changes were triggered by an electrical event, they were strengthened by repetition, and they persisted indefinitely. …the scientists found that intense high-frequency pulses trigger an unusually large release of calcium in the post synaptic cell…”

Military interest or funding

14.  Yes. See above.


HR 2977 Space Preservation Act of 2001

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 18/06/2010


1st Session

H. R. 2977

To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.


October 2, 2001

Mr. KUCINICH introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committees on Armed Services, and International Relations, for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker, in each case for consideration of such provisions as fall within the jurisdiction of the committee concerned


To preserve the cooperative, peaceful uses of space for the benefit of all humankind by permanently prohibiting the basing of weapons in space by the United States, and to require the President to take action to adopt and implement a world treaty banning space-based weapons.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,


This Act may be cited as the `Space Preservation Act of 2001′.


Congress reaffirms the policy expressed in section 102(a) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 U.S.C. 2451(a)), stating that it `is the policy of the United States that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind.’.


The President shall–

(1) implement a permanent ban on space-based weapons of the United States and remove from space any existing space-based weapons of the United States; and

(2) immediately order the permanent termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production, and deployment of all space-based weapons of the United States and their components.


The President shall direct the United States representatives to the United Nations and other international organizations to immediately work toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing a world agreement banning space-based weapons.


The President shall submit to Congress not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act, and every 90 days thereafter, a report on–

(1) the implementation of the permanent ban on space-based weapons required by section 3; and

(2) progress toward negotiating, adopting, and implementing the agreement described in section 4.


Nothing in this Act may be construed as prohibiting the use of funds for–

(1) space exploration;

(2) space research and development;

(3) testing, manufacturing, or production that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or

(4) civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems.


In this Act:

(1) The term `space’ means all space extending upward from an altitude greater than 60 kilometers above the surface of the earth and any celestial body in such space.

(2)(A) The terms `weapon’ and `weapons system’ mean a device capable of any of the following:

(i) Damaging or destroying an object (whether in outer space, in the atmosphere, or on earth) by–

(I) firing one or more projectiles to collide with that object;

(II) detonating one or more explosive devices in close proximity to that object;

(III) directing a source of energy (including molecular or atomic energy, subatomic particle beams, electromagnetic radiation, plasma, or extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation) against that object; or

(IV) any other unacknowledged or as yet undeveloped means.

(ii) Inflicting death or injury on, or damaging or destroying, a person (or the biological life, bodily health, mental health, or physical and economic well-being of a person)–

(I) through the use of any of the means described in clause (i) or subparagraph (B);

(II) through the use of land-based, sea-based, or space-based systems using radiation, electromagnetic, psychotronic, sonic, laser, or other energies directed at individual persons or targeted populations for the purpose of information war, mood management, or mind control of such persons or populations; or

(III) by expelling chemical or biological agents in the vicinity of a person.

(B) Such terms include exotic weapons systems such as–

(i) electronic, psychotronic, or information weapons;

(ii) chemtrails;

(iii) high altitude ultra low frequency weapons systems;

(iv) plasma, electromagnetic, sonic, or ultrasonic weapons;

(v) laser weapons systems;

(vi) strategic, theater, tactical, or extraterrestrial weapons; and

(vii) chemical, biological, environmental, climate, or tectonic weapons.

(C) The term `exotic weapons systems’ includes weapons designed to damage space or natural ecosystems (such as the ionosphere and upper atmosphere) or climate, weather, and tectonic systems with the purpose of inducing damage or destruction upon a target population or region on earth or in space.

On the Need for New Criteria of Diagnosis of Psychosis in the Light of Mind Invasive Technology

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 17/06/2010

“We have failed to comprehend that the result of the technology that originated in the years of the arms race between the Soviet Union and the West, has resulted in using satellite technology not only for surveillance and communication systems but also to lock on to human beings, manipulating brain frequencies by directing laser beams, neural-particle beams, electro-magnetic radiation, sonar waves, radiofrequency radiation (RFR), soliton waves, torsion fields and by use of these or other energy fields which form the areas of study for astro-physics. Since the operations are characterised by secrecy, it seems inevitable that the methods that we do know about, that is, the exploitation of the ionosphere, our natural shield, are already outdated as we begin to grasp the implications of their use.” [Excerpt]

For those of us who were trained in a psychoanalytical approach to the patient which was characterised as patient centred, and which acknowledged that the effort to understand the world of the other person entailed an awareness that the treatment was essentially one of mutuality and trust, the American Psychiatry Association’s Diagnostic Criteria for Schizotypal personality was always a cause for alarm.  The Third Edition (1987) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) required that there be at least four of the characteristics set out for a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and an approved selection of four could be: magical thinking, telepathy or sixth sense; limited social contact; odd speech; and over-sensitivity to criticism. By 1994, the required number of qualifying characteristics were reduced to two or more, including, say, hallucinations and ‘negative ‘ symptoms such as affective flattening, or disorganised or incoherent speech – or only one if the delusions were bizarre or the hallucination consisted of a voice keeping up a running commentary on the person’s behaviour or thoughts. The next edition of the DSM is not due until the year 2010.

In place of a process of a labelling which brought alienation and often detention, sectioning, and mind altering anti-psychotic medication, many psychoanalysts and psychotherapists felt that even in severe cases of schizoid withdrawal we were not necessarily wasting our time in attempting to restore health by the difficult work of unravelling experiences in order to make sense of an illness. In this way, psychoanalysis has been, in its most radical form, a critic of a society, which failed to exercise imaginative empathy when passing judgement on people. The work of Harry Stack Sullivan, Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, Harold Searles or R.D. Laing – all trained as psychiatrists and all of them rebels against the standard procedures – provided a way of working with people very different from the psychiatric model, which seemed to encourage a society to repress its sickness by making a clearly split off group the carriers of it.  A psychiatrist in a mental hospital once joked to me, with some truth, when I commented on the number of carrier bags carried by many of the medicated patients around the hospital grounds, that they assessed the progress of the patient in terms of the reduction of the number of carrier bags. It is too often difficult to believe, however, when hearing the history of a life, that the “schizophrenic” was not suffering the effects of having been made, consciously and unconsciously, the carefully concealed carrier of the ills of the family.

For someone who felt his mind was going to pieces, to be put into the stressful situation of the psychiatric examination, even when the psychiatrist acquitted himself with kindness, the situation of the assessment procedure itself, can be ‘an effective way to drive someone crazy, or more crazy.’ (Laing, 1985, p 17).  But if the accounting of bizarre experiences more or less guaranteed you a new label or a trip to the psychiatric ward, there is even more reason for a new group of people to be outraged about how their symptoms are being diagnosed.  A doubly cruel sentence is being imposed on people who are the victims of the most appalling abuse by scientific-military experiments, and a totally uncomprehending society is indifferent to their evidence. For the development of a new class of weaponry now has the capability of entering the brain and mind and body of another person by technological means.

Harnessing neuroscience to military capability, this technology is the result of decades of research and experimentation, most particularly in the Soviet Union and the United States. (Welsh, 1997, 2000) We have failed to comprehend that the result of the technology that originated in the years of the arms race between the Soviet Union and the West, has resulted in using satellite technology not only for surveillance and communication systems but also to lock on to human beings, manipulating brain frequencies by directing laser beams, neural-particle beams, electro-magnetic radiation, sonar waves, radiofrequency radiation (RFR), soliton waves, torsion fields and by use of these or other energy fields which form the areas of study for astro-physics. Since the operations are characterised by secrecy, it seems inevitable that the methods that we do know about, that is, the exploitation of the ionosphere, our natural shield, are already outdated as we begin to grasp the implications of their use. The patents deriving from Bernard J. Eastlund’s work provide the ability to put unprecedented amounts of power in the Earth’s atmosphere at strategic locations and to maintain the power injection level, particularly if random pulsing is employed, in a manner far more precise and better controlled than accomplished by the prior art, the detonation of nuclear devices at various yields and various altitudes. (ref High Frequency Active Auroral Research Project, HAARP).

Some patents, now owned by Raytheon, describe how to make “nuclear sized explosions without radiation” and describe power beam systems, electromagnetic pulses and over-the-horizon detection systems. A more disturbing use is the system developed for manipulating and disturbing the human mental process using pulsed radio frequency radiation (RFR), and their use as a device for causing negative effects on human health and thinking. The victim, the innocent civilian target is locked on to, and unable to evade the menace by moving around. The beam is administered from space.  The Haarp facility as military technology could be used to broadcast global mind-control, as a system for manipulating and disturbing the human mental process using pulsed radio frequency (RFR). The super-powerful radio waves are beamed to the ionosphere, heating those areas, thereby lifting them. The electromagnetic waves bounce back to the earth and penetrate human tissue.

Dr Igor Smirnov, of the Institute of Psycho-Correction in Moscow, says: “It is easily conceivable that some Russian ‘Satan’, or let’s say Iranian – or any other ‘Satan’, as long as he owns the appropriate means and finances, can inject himself into every conceivable computer network, into every conceivable radio or television broadcast, with relative technological ease, even without disconnecting cables…and intercept the radio waves in the ether and modulate every conceivable suggestion into it. This is why such technology is rightfully feared.”(German TV documentary, 1998).

If we were concerned before about diagnostic criteria being imposed according to the classification of recognizable  symptoms, we have reason now to submit them to even harsher scrutiny. The development over the last decades since the Cold War arms race has included as a major strategic category, psycho-electronic weaponry, the ultimate aim of which is to enter the brain and mind. Unannounced, undebated and largely unacknowledged by scientists or by the governments who employ them – technology to enter and control minds from a distance has been unleashed upon us. The only witnesses who are speaking about   this terrible technology with its appalling implications for the future, are the victims themselves and those who are given the task of diagnosing mental illness are attempting to silence them by classifying their evidence and accounts as the symptoms of schizophrenia, while the dispensers of psychic mutilation and programmed pain continue with their work, aided and unopposed.

If it was always crucial, under the threat of psychiatric sectioning, to carefully screen out any sign of confused speech, negativity, coldness, suspicion, bizarre thoughts, sixth sense, telepathy, premonitions, but above all the sense that “others can feel my feelings, and that someone seemed to be keeping up a running commentary on your thoughts and behaviour,” then reporting these to a psychiatrist, or anyone else for that matter who was not of a mind to believe that such things as mind-control could exist, would be the end of your claim to sanity and probably your freedom. For one of the salient characteristics of mind-control is the running commentary, which replicates so exactly, and surely not without design, the symptoms of schizophrenia. Part of the effort is to remind the victim that they are constantly under control or surveillance. Programmes vary, but common forms of reminders are electronic prods and nudges, body noises, twinges and cramps to all parts of the body, increasing heart beats, applying pressures to internal organs – all with a personally codified system of comments on thoughts and events, designed to create stress, panic and desperation. This is mind control at its most benign. There is reason to fear the use of beamed energy to deliver lethal assaults on humans, including cardiac arrest, and bleeding in the brain.

It is the government system of secrecy, which has facilitated this appalling prospect. There have been warning voices. “…the government secrecy system as a whole is among the most poisonous legacies of the Cold War …the Cold War secrecy (which) also mandate(s) Active Deception…a security manual for special access programs authorizing contractors to employ ‘cover stories to disguise their activities.  The only condition is that cover stories must be believable.” (Aftergood & Rosenberg, 1994; Bulletin of Atomic Scientist). Paranoia has been aided and abetted by government intelligence agencies.

In the United Kingdom the fortifications against any disturbing glimmer of awareness of such actual or potential outrages against human rights and social and political abuses seem to be cast in concrete.  Complete with crenellations, ramparts and parapets, the stronghold of nescience reigns supreme.  To borrow Her Majesty the Queen’s recent observation: “There are forces at work of which we are not aware.”  One cannot say that there is no British Intelligence on the matter, as it is quite unfeasible that the existence of the technology is not classified information. Indeed it is a widely held belief that the women protesting against the presence of cruise missiles at Greenham Common were victims of electro-magnetic radiation at gigahertz frequency by directed energy weapons, and that their symptoms, including cancer, were consistent with such radiation effects as reported by Dr Robert Becker who has been a constantly warning voice against the perils of electro-magnetic radiation. The work of Allen Frey suggests that we should consider radiation effects as a grave hazard  producing increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier, and weakening crucial defenses of the central  nervous system against toxins. (Becker, 1985, p. 286).  Dr Becker has written about nuclear magnetic resonance as a familiar tool in medecine known as magnetic resonance imaging or MRI. Calcium efflux is the result of cyclotronic resonance which latter can be explained  thus: If a charged particle or ion is exposed to a steady magnetic field in space, it will begin to go into a circular or orbital, motion at right angles to the applied magnetic field.The speed with which it orbits will be determined by the ratio between the charge and the mass of the particle and by the strength of the magnetic field. (Becker, 1990,p.235) The implications of this for wide scale aggression by using a combination of radar based energy and the use of nuclear resonating are beyond the scope of the writer, but appear to be worth the very serious consideration of physicists in assessing how  they might be used against human beings.

Amongst medical circles, however, it has so far not been possible for the writer to find a neuroscientist, neurologist or a psychiatrist, nor for that matter, a general medical practitioner, who acknowledges even the potential for technological manipulation of the nervous system as a problem requiring their professional interest. There has been exactly this response from some of England’s most eminent practitioners of the legal profession, not surprisingly, because the information about such technology is not made available to them. They would refer anyone attempting to communicate mind- harassment as a psychiatric problem, ignoring the crime that is being committed.

The aim here is not to attempt a comprehensive history and development of the technology of mind control. These very considerable tasks – which have to be done under circumstances of the most extreme difficulty – have been addressed with clarity and courage by others, who live with constant harm and threats, not least of all contemptuous labelling. Their work can be readily accessed on the internet references given at the end of this paper. For a well-researched outline of the historical development of electro-magnetic technology the reader should refer to the timeline of dates and electromagnetic weapon development by Cheryl Welsh, president of Citizens against Human Rights Abuse. (Welsh 1997; 2001). There are at least one and a half thousand people worldwide who state they are being targeted. Mojmir Babacek, now domiciled in his native Czech Republic, after eight years of residence in the United States in the eighties, has made a  painstakingly meticulous review of the technology, and continues his research. (Babacek 1998, 2002)

We are concerned here with reinforcing in the strongest possible terms:

i) The need for such abuses to human rights and the threats to democracy to be called to consciousness, and without further delay.

ii) To analyse the reasons why people might defend themselves from becoming conscious of the existence of such threats.

iii) To address the urgent need for intelligence, imagination, and information  – not to mention compassion  – in dealing with the victims of persecution from this technology, and

iv) To alert a sleeping society, to the imminent threats to their freedom from the threat from fascist and covert operations who have in all probability gained control of potentially lethal weaponry of the type we are describing.

It is necessary to emphasise that at present there is not even the means for victims to gain medical attention for the effects of radiation from this targeting. Denied the respect of credulity of being used as human guinea pigs, driven to suicide by the breakdown of their lives, they are treated as insane – at best regarded as ‘sad cases’.  Since the presence of a permanent ‘other’ in one’s mind and body is by definition an act of the most intolerable cruelty, people who are forced to bear it but who refuse to be broken by it, have no other option than to turn themselves into activists, their lives consumed by the battle against such atrocities, their energies directed to alerting and informing the public of things they don’t want to hear or understand about evil forces at work in their society.
It is necessary, at this point, to briefly outline a few – one might say the precious few – attempts by public servants to verify the existence and dangers inherent in this field:

In January 1998, an annual public meeting of the French National Bioethics Committee was held in Paris. Its chairman, Jean-Pierre Changeux, a neuroscientist at the Institut Pasteur in Paris, told the meeting that “advances in cerebral imaging make the scope for invasion of privacy immense. Although the equipment needed is still highly specialized, it will become commonplace and capable of being used at a distance. That will open the way for abuses such as invasion of personal liberty, control of behaviour and brainwashing. These are far from being science-fiction concerns…and constitute “a serious risk to society.” (“Nature.” Vol 391, 1998.
In January 1999, the European Parliament passed a resolution where it calls “ for an international convention introducing a global ban on all development and deployment of weapons which might enable any form of manipulation of human beings. It is our conviction that this ban can not be implemented without the global pressure of the informed general public on the governments. Our major objective is to get across to the general public the real threat which these weapons represent for human rights and democracy and to apply pressure on the governments and parliaments around the world to enact legislature which would prohibit the use of these devices to both government and private organisations as well as individuals.”  (Plenary sessions/Europarliament, 1999)
In October 2001, Congressman Dennis J. Kucinich introduced a bill to the House of Representatives which, it was hoped would be extremely important in the fight to expose and stop psycho-electronic mind control experimentation on involuntary, non-consensual citizens. The Bill was referred to the Committee on Science, and in addition to the Committee on Armed Services and International Relations. In the original bill a ban was sought on ‘exotic weapons’ including electronic, psychotronic or information weapons, chemtrails, particle beams, plasmas, electromagnetic radiation, extremely low frequency (ELF) or ultra low frequency (ULF) energy radiation, or mind control technologies. Despite the inclusion of a prohibition of the basing of weapons in space, and the use of weapons to destroy objects or damage objects in space, there is no mention in the revised bill of any of the aforementioned mind-invasive weaponry, nor of the use of satellite or radar or other energy based technology for deploying or developing technology designed for deployment against the minds of human beings. (Space Preservation Act, 2002)

In reviewing the development of the art of mind-invasive technology– there are a few outstanding achievements to note:

In 1969 Dr Jose Delgado, a Yale psychologist, published a book: “Physical Control of the Mind: Towards a Psychocivilized Society”. In essence, he displayed in practical demonstrations how, by means of electrical stimulation of the brain which had been mapped out in its relations between different points and activities, functions and sensations, – by means of electrical stimulation, how the rhythm of breathing and heartbeat could be changed, as well as the function of most of the viscera, and gall bladder secretion. Frowning, opening and closing of eyes and mouth, chewing, yawning, sleep, dizziness, epileptic seizures in healthy persons were induced. The intensity of feelings could be controlled by turning the knob, which controlled the intensity of the electric current. He states at the end of his book the hope that the new power will remain limited to scientists or some charitable elite for the benefit of a “psychocivilized society.”

In the 1980’s the neuromagnetometer was developed which functions as an antenna and could monitor the patterns emerging from the brain. (In the seventies the scientists had discovered that electromagnetic pulses enabled the brain to be stimulated through the skull and other tissues, so there was no more need to implant electrodes in the brain). The antenna, combined with the computer, could localize the points in the brain where the brain events occur. The whole product is called the magnetoencephalograph.

In January 2000 the Lockheed Martin neuroengineer Dr John D. Norseen, was quoted (US News and World Report, 2000) as hoping to turn the electrohypnomentalaphone, a mind reading machine, into science fact. Dr Norseen, a former Navy pilot, claims his interest in the brain stemmed from reading a Soviet book in the 1980’s claiming that research on the mind would revolutionize the military and society at large. By a process of deciphering the brain’s electrical activity, electromagnetic pulsations would trigger the release of the brain’s own transmitters to fight off disease, enhance learning, or alter the mind’s visual images, creating a ‘synthetic reality’. By this process of BioFusion, (Lockheed Martin, 2000) information is placed in a database, and a composite model of the brain is created. By viewing a brain scan recorded by (functional) magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine, scientists can tell what the person was doing at the time of recording – say reading or writing, or recognise emotions from love to hate. “If this research pans out”, says Norseen, “you can begin to manipulate what someone is thinking even before they know it.” But Norseen says he is ‘agnostic’ on the moral ramifications, that he’s not a mad scientist – just a dedicated one. “The ethics don’t concern me,” he says, “but they should concern someone else.”

The next big thing looks like being something which we might refer to as a neurocomputer but it need not resemble a laptop – it may be reducible to whatever size is convenient for use, such as a small mobile phone. Arising from a break-through and exploitation of PSI-phenomena, it may be modelled on the nervous-psychic activity of the brain – that is, as an unbalanced, unstable system of neurotransmitters and interacting neurones, the work having been derived from the creation of a copy of a living brain – accessed by chance,  and ESP and worked on by design.

On receiving a communication from the writer on the feasibility of a machine being on the horizon which, based on the project of collecting electromagnetic waves emanating from the brain and transmitting them into another brain that would read a person’s thoughts, or using the same procedure in order to impose somebody else’s thoughts on another brain and in this way direct his actions – there was an unequivocal answer from IBM at executive level that there was no existing technology to create such a computer in the foreseeable future. This is at some variance with the locating of a patent numbered 03951134 on the Internet pages of IBM Intellectual Property Network for a device, described in the patent, as capable of picking up at a distance the brain waves of a person, process them by computer and emit correcting waves which will change the original brain waves. Similar letters addressed to each of the four top executives of Apple Inc., in four individual letters marked for their personal attention, produced absolutely no response. This included the ex- Vice President of the United States, Mr Al Gore, newly elected to the Board of Directors of Apple.

Enough people have been sufficiently concerned by the reports of victims of mind control abuse to organise The Geneva Forum, in 2002, held as a joint initiative of the Quaker United Nations Office, Geneva; the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research; the International Committee of the Red cross, and the Human Rights Watch (USA), and Citizens against Human Rights Abuses (CAHRA); and the Programme for Strategic and International Security Studies, which was represented by the Professor and Senior Lecturer from the Department of Peace Studies at the University of Bradford.

In England, on May 25, 1995, the Guardian newspaper in the U.K. carried an article based on a report by Nic Lewer, the peace researcher from Bradford University, which listed “more than 30 different lines of research into ‘new age weapons’…”some of the research sounds even less rational. There are, according to Lewer, plans for ‘pulsed microwave beams’ to destroy enemy electronics, and separate plans for very-low-frequency sound beams to induce vomiting, bowel spasm, epileptic seizures and also crumble masonry.” Further, the article states, “There are plans for ‘mind control’ with the use of ‘psycho-correction messages’ transmitted by subliminal audio and visual stimuli. There is also a plan for ‘psychotronic weapons’ – apparently the projection of consciousness to other locations – and another to use holographic projection to disseminate propaganda and misinformation.” (Welsh, Timeline). Apart from this notable exception it is difficult to locate any public statement of the problem in the United Kingdom.

Unfortunately, the problem of credulity does not necessarily cease with frequent mention, as in the United States, in spite of the number of reported cases, there is still not sufficient public will to make strenuous protest against what is not only already happening, but against what will develop if left unchecked. It appears that the administration believes that it is necessary and justifiable, in the interests of national security, to make experimental human sacrifices, to have regrettable casualties, for there to be collateral damage, to suffer losses in place of strife or war.  This is, of course, totally incompatible with any claims to be a democratic nation which respects the values of human life and democracy, and such an administration which tutors its servants in the ways of such barbaric tortures must be completely condemned as uncivilised and hypocritical.

Disbelief as a Defence Mechanism

In the face of widespread disbelief about mind-control, it seems worth analysing the basis of the mechanisms employed to maintain disbelief:

i) In the sixties, Soviet dissidents received a significant measure of sympathy and indignant protest from western democracies on account of their treatment, most notedly the abuse of psychiatric methods of torture to which they were subjected. It is noteworthy that we seem to be able to access credulity, express feelings of indignant support when we can identify with victims, who share and support our own value system, and who, in this particular historical case, reinforced our own values, since they were protesting against a political system which also  threatened us at that time. Psychologically, it is equally important to observe that support from a safe distance, and the benefits to the psyche of attacking a split-off  ‘bad father’, the soviet authorities in this case, presents no threat to one’s internal system; indeed it relieves internal pressures.  On the other hand, recognizing and denouncing a similar offence makes very much greater psychic demands of us when it brings us into conflict with our own environment, our own security, our own reality.  The defence against disillusion serves to suppress paranoia that our father figure, the president, the prime minister, our governments – might not be what they would like to be seen to be.

ii) The need to deposit destructive envy and bad feelings elsewhere, on account of the inability of the ego to acknowledge ownership of them – reinforces the usefulness of persons or groups, which will serve to contain those, disowned, projected feelings which arouse paranoid anxieties. The concepts of mind-invasion strike at the very heart of paranoid anxiety, causing considerable efforts to dislodge them from the psyche. The unconscious identification of madness with dirt or excrement is an important aspect of anal aggression, triggering projective identification as a defence.

iii) To lay oneself open to believing that a person is undergoing the experience of being invaded mentally and physically by an unseen manipulator requires very great efforts in the self to manage dread.

iv) The defence against the unknown finds expression in the split between theory and practice; between the scientist as innovator and the society who can make the moral decisions about his inventions; between fact and science fiction, the latter of which can present preposterous challenges to the imagination without undue threat, because it serves to reinforce a separation from the real.

v) Identification with the aggressor. Sadistic fantasies, unconscious and conscious, being transferred on to the aggressor and identified with, aid the repression of fear of passivity, or a dread of punishment. This mechanism acts to deny credulity to the victim who represents weakness. This is a common feature of satanic sects.

vi) The liberal humanist tradition which denies the worst destructive capacities of man in the effort to sustain the belief in the great continuity of cultural and scientific tradition; the fear, in one’s own past development, of not being ‘ongoing’, can produce the psychic effect of reversal into the opposite to shield against aggressive feelings. This becomes then the exaggerated celebration of the ‘new’ as the affirmation of human genius which will ultimately be for the good of mankind, and which opposes warning voices about scientific advances as being pessimistic, unenlightened, unprogressive and Luddite.  Strict adherence to this liberal position can act as overcompensation for a fear of envious spoiling of good possessions, i.e. cultural and intellectual goods.

vii) Denial by displacement is also employed to ignore the harmful aspects of technology. What may be harmful for the freedom and good of society can be masked and concealed by the distribution of new and entertaining novelties. The technology, which puts a camera down your gut for medical purposes, is also used to limit your freedom by surveillance. The purveyors of innovative technology come up with all sorts of new gadgets, which divert, entertain and feed the acquisitive needs of insatiable shoppers, and bolster the economy.  The theme of “Everything’s up to date in Kansas City” only takes on a downside when individual experience – exploding breast implants, say – takes the gilt off the gingerbread. Out of every innovation for evil (i.e. designed for harming and destroying) some ‘good’  (i.e. public diversion or entertainment) can be promoted for profit or crowd-pleasing.

viii) Nasa is sending a spacecraft to Mars, or so we are told.  They plan to trundle across the Martian surface searching for signs of water and life. We do not hear dissenting voices about  its feasibility.

Why is it that, when a person accounts that their mind is being disrupted and they are being persecuted by an unseen method of invasive technology, that we cannot bring ourselves to believe them?  Could it be that the horror involved in the empathic identification required brings the shutters down? Conversely, the shared experience of the blasting of objects into space brings with it the possibilities of shared potency or the relief  that resonates in the unconscious of a massive projection or evacuation – a shared experience which is blessed in the name of man’s scientific genius.

ix) The desire ‘not to be taken in’, not to be taken for a fool, provides one of the most powerful and common defence mechanism against credulity.

Power, Paranoia and Unhealthy Governments

The ability to be the bearer and container of great power without succumbing to the pressures of latent narcissistic psychoses is an important matter too little considered. The effect of holding power and the expectation and the need to be seen as capable of sustaining it, if not exercising it, encourages omnipotence of thought. In the wake of this, a narcissistic overevaluation of the subject’s own mental processes may set in. In the effort to hold himself together as the possessor, container and executor of power, he (or indeed, she) may also, undergo a process of splitting which allows him, along with others, to bear enthralled witness of himself in this illustrious role. This may mean that the seat of authority is vacated, at least at times. The splitting process between the experiencing ego and the perceiving ego allows the powerful leader to alternate his perception of himself inside and outside, sometimes beside, himself. With the reinforcement of himself from others as his own narcissistic object, reality testing is constrained.  In this last respect, he has much in common with the other powerful figure of the age, the movie star. or by those, in Freud’s words, who are “ruined by success.”

In a world, which is facing increasing disillusion about the gulf between the public platforms on which governments are elected, and the contingencies and pragmatics of retaining defence strategies and economic investments, the role of military and intelligence departments, with their respective tools of domination and covert infiltration, is increasingly alarming.  Unaccountable to the public, protected from exposure and prosecution by their immunity, licensed to lie as well as to kill, it is in the hands of these agents that very grave threats to human rights and freedom lies. Empowered to carry out aggression through classified weapon experimentation which is undetectable, these men and women are also open to corruption from lucrative offers of financial reward from powerful and sinister groups who can utilize their skills, privileged knowledge and expertise for frankly criminal and fascist purposes.

Our information about the psychological profiles of those who are employed to practice surveillance on others is limited, but it is not difficult to imagine the effects on the personality that would ensue with the persistent practice of such an occupation, so constantly exposed to the perversions. One gains little snatches of insight here and there. In his book on CIA mind control research (Marks, 1988), John Marks quotes a CIA colleague’s joke (always revealing for personality characteristics): “If you could find the natural radio frequency of a person’s sphincter, you could make him run out of the room real fast.” (One wonders if the same amusement is derived from the ability to apply, say infra-sound above 130 decibels, which is said to cause stoppage of the heart, according to one victim/activist from his readings of a report for the Russian Parliament.)

Left to themselves, these servants of the state may well feel exempt from the process of moral self-scrutiny, but the work must be dehumanising for the predator as well as the prey. It is probably true that the need to control their agents in the field was an incentive to develop the methods  in use today. It is also an effectively brutalising training for persecuting others. Meanwhile the object, the prey, in a bid for not only for survival but also in a desperate effort to warn his or her fellows about what is going on, attempts to turn himself into a quantum physicist, a political researcher, a legal sleuth, an activist, a neurologist, a psychologist, a physiologist – his own doctor, since he cannot know what effects this freakish treatment might have on his body, let alone his mind. There are always new methods to try out which might prove useful in the search to find ways of disabling and destroying opponents – air injected into brains and lungs, lasers to strike down or blind, particle beams, sonar waves, or whatever combination of energies to direct, or destabilise or control.

Science and Scepticism

Scientists can be bought, not just by governments, but also by sinister and secret societies.  Universities can be funded by governments to develop technology for unacceptably inhumane uses.  The same people who deliver the weapons – perhaps respected scientists and academics – may cite the acceptable side of scientific discoveries, which have been developed by experimenting on unacknowledged, unfortunate people. In a cleaned up form, they are then possibly celebrated as a break-through in the understanding of the natural laws of the universe. It is not implausible that having delivered the technical means for destruction, the innovator and thinker goes on, wearing a different hat, to receive his (or her) Nobel Prize. There are scientists who have refused to continue to do work when they were approached by CIA and Soviet representatives. These are the real heroes of science.

In the power struggle, much lies at stake in being the first to gain control of ultimate mind-reading and mind-controlling technology. Like the nuclear bomb, common ownership would seem by any sane calculations to cancel out the advantage of possession, but there is always a race to be the first to possess the latest ultimate means of mass destruction.  The most desirable form is one that can be directed at others without contaminating oneself in the process – one that can be undetected and neatly, economically and strategically delivered. We should be foolish to rule out secret organisations, seeing threat only from undemocratic countries and known terrorist groups.

As consumers in a world which is increasingly one in which shopping is the main leisure activity, we should concern ourselves to becoming alert to the ways in which human welfare may have been sacrificed to produce an awesome new gadget. It may be the cause for celebration for the ‘innovator’, but brought about as the result of plugging in or dialling up the living neuronal processes of an enforced experimentee.  If we are concerned not to eat boiled eggs laid by battery hens, we might not regard it morally irrelevant to scrutinise the large corporations producing electronically innovative  ‘software.’ We might also be wary about the origins of the sort of bland enticements of dating agencies who propose finding your ideal partner by matching up brain frequencies and ‘bio-rhythms’.

We do not know enough about  the background of such technology, nor how to evaluate it ethically. We do not know about its effects on the future, because we are not properly informed. If governments persist in concealing the extent of their weapon capability in the interests of defence, they are also leaving their citizens disempowered of the right to protest against their deployment. More alarmingly, they are leaving their citizens exposed to their deployment by ruthless organisations whose concerns are exactly the opposite of democracy and human rights.

Back in the United Kingdom

Meanwhile, back in England, the Director of the Oxford Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Professor Colin Blakemore, also the elective Chief Executive of the Medical Research Council writes to the author that he “… knows of no technology  (not even in the wildest speculations of neuroscientists) for scanning and collecting ‘neuronal data’ at a distance.” (Blakemore, 2003, ) This certitude is at distinct variance with the fears of other scientists in Russia and the United States, and not least of all with the fears of the French neuroscientist, Jean-Pierre Changeux of the French National Bioethics Committee already quoted (see page 5). It is also very much at odds with the writing of Dr Michael Persinger from the Behavioural Neuroscience Laboratory at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. His article “On the Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain by Electromagnetic Induction of Algorithms” (1995), he describes the ways that individual differences among human brains can be overcome and comes to a conclusion about the technological possibilities of influencing a major part of the approximately six billion people on this planet without mediation through classical sensory modalities but by generating electromagnetic induction of fundamental algorithms in the atmosphere. Dr Persinger’s work is referred to by Captain John Tyler whose work for the American Air Force and Aerospace programmes likens the human nervous system to a radio receiver. (1990)

Very recently the leading weekly cultural BBC radio review had as one of its guests, the eminent astro-physicist and astronomer royal, Sir Martin Rees, who has recently published a book, “Our Final Century”, in which he makes a sober and reasoned case for the fifty-fifty chance that millions of people, probably in a ‘third-world country’ could be wiped out in the near future through biotechnology and bio-terrorism – “by error or malign release.” He spoke of this devastation as possibly coming from small groups or cults, based in the United States. “…few individuals with the right technology to cause absolute mayhem.”  He also said that in this century, human nature is no longer a fixed commodity, that perhaps we should contemplate the possibility that humans would even have implants in the brain.

The other guests on this programme were both concerned with Shakespeare, one a theatre producer and the other a writer on Shakespeare, while his remaining guest was a young woman who had a website called “Spiked”, the current theme of which was Panic Attack, that is to say, Attack on Panic. This guest vigorously opposed what she felt was the pessimism of Sir Martin, regarding his ideas as essentially eroding trust, and inducing panic. This reaction seems to typify one way of dealing with threat and anxiety, and demonstrates  the difficulty that a warning voice, even from  a man of the academic distinction of Martin Rees, has in alerting people to that which they do not want to hear. This flight reaction was reinforced by the presenter who summed up the morning’s discussion at the end of the programme with the words:  “We have a moral! Less panic, more Shakespeare!”

The New Barbarism

Since access to a mind-reading machine will enable the operator to access the ideas of another person, we should prepare ourselves for a new world order in which ideas will be, as it were, up for grabs.  We need not doubt that the contents of another’s mind will be scooped up, scooped out, sorted through as if the event was a jumble sale. The legal profession would therefore be well advised to consider the laws on Intellectual Property very judiciously in order to acquit themselves with any degree of authenticity. We should accustom ourselves to the prospect of recognizing our work coming out of the mouth of another. The prospect of wide-scale fraud, and someone posturing in your stolen clothes will not be a pretty sight.  The term “personal mind enhancement”  is slipping in through the back door, to borrow a term used by the Co-Director of the Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics, and it is being done through technologically-induced mental co-ercion – mind raping and looting.  In place of, or in addition to, cocaine, we may expect to see ‘mind-enhanced’ performances on “live” television.

The brave new science of neuropsychiatry and brain mapping hopes to find very soon, with the fMRI scanner – this “brand new toy that scientists have got their hands on” – “the blob for love” and “the blob for guilt”, (BBC Radio 4: All in the Mind, 5 March, 2003). Soon we will be able to order a brain scan for anyone whose behaviour strikes us as odd or bizarre, and the vicissitudes of a life need no longer trouble us in our diagnostic assessments. In his recent Reith Lectures for the BBC (2003), Professor Ramachandran, the celebrated neuroscientist from the La Hoya Institute in San Diego, California, has demonstrated for us many fascinating things that the brain can do. He has talked to us about personality disorders and shown that some patients, who have suffered brain damage from head injury, do not have the capacity to recognise their mothers. Others feel that they are dead. And indeed he has found brain lesions in these people. In what seems to be an enormous but effortless leap, the self-styled “kid in a candy store” is now hoping to prove that all schizophrenics, have damage to the right hemisphere of the brain, which results in the inability to distinguish between fantasy (sic) and reality. Since  Professor Ramachandran speaks of schizophrenia in the same breath as denial of illness, or agnosia, it is not clear, and it would be interesting to know, whether the person with the head injury has been aware or unaware of the head injury. Also does the patient derive comfort and a better chance at reality testing when he is told of the lesion?  Does he feel better when he has received the diagnosis? And what should the psychoanalysts – and the psychiatrists, – feel about all those years of treating people of whose head injuries they were absolutely unaware? Was this gross negligence? Were we absolutely deluded in perceiving recovery in a sizeable number of them?

It is, however, lamentable that a neuroscientist with a professed interest in understanding schizophrenia should seek to provide light relief to his audience by making jokes about schizophrenics being people who are “convinced that the CIA has implanted devices in their brain to control their thoughts and actions, or that aliens are controlling them.”  (Reith Lecture, No 5, 2003).

There is a new desire for concretisation. The search for meaning has been replaced by the need for hard proof. If it doesn’t light up or add up it doesn’t have validity. The physician of the mind has become a surgeon. “He found a lump as big as a grapefruit!”

Facing up to the Dread and Fear of the Uncanny

Freud believed that an exploration of the uncanny would be a major direction of exploration of the mind in this century. The fear of the uncanny has been with us for a very long time. The evil eye, or the terrifying double, or intruder, is a familiar theme in literature, notably of Joseph Conrad in The Secret Sharer, and Maupassant’s short story, Le Horla. Freud’s analysis of the uncanny led him back to the old animistic conception of the universe: “…it seems as if each one of us has been through a phase of individual development corresponding to the animistic phase in primitive men, that none of us has passed through it without preserving certain residues and traces of it which are still capable of manifesting themselves, and that everything which now strikes us as ‘uncanny’ fulfils the condition of touching those residues of animistic mental activity within us and bringing them to expression.” (Freud: 1919. p.362)

The separation of birth, and the childhood fear of ‘spooks in the night’, also leave their traces in each and every one of us. The individual experience of being alone in one’s mind – the solitary fate of man which has never been questioned before, and upon which the whole history of civilised nurture is based – is now assaulted head-on.  Since growing up is largely synonymous with acceptance of one’s aloneness, the effort to assuage it is the basis for compassion and protection of others; it is the matrix for the greatest good, that of ordinary human kindness, and is at the heart of the communicating power of great art. Even if we must all live and die alone, we can at least share this knowledge in acts of tenderness which atone for our lonely state. In times of loss and mental breakdown, the starkness of this aloneness is all too clear.  The best of social and group constructiveness is an effort to allay the psychotic anxieties that lie at the base of every one of us, and which may be provoked under extreme enough conditions.

The calculated and technological entry into another person’s mind is an act of monumental barbarism which obliterates– perhaps with the twiddling of a dial – the history and civilisation of man’s mental development. It is more than an abuse of human rights, it is the destruction of meaning. For any one who is forced into the hell of living with an unseen mental rapist, the effort to stay sane is beyond the scope of tolerable endurance.  The imaginative capacity of the ordinary mind cannot encompass the horror of it.  We have attempted to come to terms with the experiments of the Nazis in concentration camps. We now have the prospect of systematic control authorised by men who issue instructions through satellite communications for the destruction of societies while they are driving new Jaguars and Mercedes, and going to the opera.

This is essentially about humiliation, and disempowerment. It is a manifestation of rage acted out by those who fear impotence with such dread, that their whole effort is directed into the emasculation and destruction of the terrifying rival of their unconscious fantasies. In this apocalypse of the mind the punitive figure wells up as if out of the bowels of the opera  stage, and this phantasmagoria is acted out on a global scale. These men  may be mad enough to believe they are creating a ‘psychocivilised world order”. For anyone who has studied damaged children, it is more resonant of the re-enactment from the unconscious, reinforced by a life devoid of the capacity for empathic identification, of the obscenities of the abused and abusing child in the savage nursery.  Other people -which were to them like Action Man toys to be dismembered, or Barbie Dolls to be obscenely defiled – become as meaningless in their humanity as pixillated dots on a screen.

Although forced entry into a mind is by definition obscene, an abbreviated assessment of the effects that  mind-invaded  people describe testifies  to the perverted nature of the experiments.  Bizarre noises are emitted from the body, a body known well enough by its owner to recognise the noises as extrinsic; air is pumped in and out of orifices as if by a bicycle pump. Gradually the repertoire is augmented – twinges and spasms to the eyes, nose, lips, strange tics, pains in the head, ringing in the ears, obstructions in the throat, pressure on the bowel and bladder causing incontinence; tingling in the fingers, feet, pressures on the heart, on breathing, dizziness, eye problems leading to cataracts; running eyes, running nose; speeding up of heart beats and the raising of pressure in the heart and chest; breathing and chest complaints leading to bronchitis and deterioration of the lungs; agonizing migraines; being woken up at night, sometimes with terrifying jolts ; insomnia; intolerable levels of stress from the loss of one’s privacy. This collection of assorted symptoms is a challenge to any medical practitioner to diagnose.

There are, more seriously, if the afore-going is characterised as non-lethal, the potential lethal effects since the capability of ultrasound and infra-sound to cause cardiac arrest, and brain lesions, paralysis and blindness, as well as blinding by laser beam, or inducing asphyxia by altering the frequencies which control breathing in the brain, epileptic seizure – all these and others may be at the fingertips of those who are developing them. And those who do choose to use them may be sitting with the weapon, which resembles, say, a compact mobile telephone, on the restaurant table next to the bottle of wine, or beside them at the swimming pool.

Finally – if the victims at this point in the new history of this mind-control, cannot yet prove their abuse, it must be asserted that, faced with the available information about technological development – it is certainly not possible for those seeking to evade such claims – to disprove them. To wait until the effects become widespread will be too late.

For these and other reasons which this paper has attempted to address, we would call for an acknowledgement of such technology at a national and international level. Politicians, scientists and neurologists, neuroscientists, physicists and the legal profession should, without further delay, demand public debate on the existence and deployment of psychotronic technology; and for the declassification of information about such devices which abuse helpless people, and threaten democratic freedom.
Victims’ accounts of abuse should be admitted to public account, and the use of psycho-electronic weapons should be made illegal and criminal,
The medical profession should be helped to recognise the symptoms of mind-control and psychotronic abuse, and intelligence about their deployment should be declassified so that this abuse can be seen to be what it is, and not interpreted automatically as an indication of mental illness.

If, in the present confusion and insecurity about the search for evidence of weapons of mass destruction, we conclude that failure to locate them – whatever the truth of the matter –encourages us to be generally complacent, then we shall be colluding with very dark forces at work if we conclude that a course of extreme vigilance signifies paranoia. For there may well be other weapons of mass destruction being developed and not so far from home; weapons which, being even more difficult to locate, are developed invisibly, unobstructed, unheeded in our midst, using human beings as test-beds. Like ESP, the methods being used on humans have not been detectable using conventional detection equipment. It is likely that the signals being used are part of a physics not known to scientists without the highest level of security clearance. To ignore the evidence of victims is to deny, perhaps with catastrophic results, the  only evidence which might otherwise lead the defenders of freedom to becoming alert to the development of a fearful new methods of destruction. Manipulating terrorist groups and governments alike, these sinister and covert forces may well be very thankful for the professional derision of the victims, and for public ignorance.


Laing, R.D. (1985) :  Wisdom, Madness and Folly: The Making of a Psychiatrist. Macmillan, 1985

Welsh, Cheryl (1997): Timeline of Important Dates in the History of Electromagnetic Technology and Mind Control, at:

Welsh, Cheryl (2001):Electromagnetic Weapons: As powerful as the Atomic Bomb, President Citizens Against Human Rights Abuse, CAHRA Home Page: U.S. Human Rights Abuse Report: http://www.dcn.davis.ca.us/~welsh/emr13.htm

Begich, Dr N. and Manning, J.: 1995 Angels Don’t Play this HAARP, Advances in Tesla Technology, Earthpulse Press.

ZDF TV:    “Secret Russia: Moscow – The Zombies of the Red Czars”, Script to be published in Resonance,  No. 35

Aftergood, Steven and Rosenberg, Barbara: “The Soft Kill Fallacy”, in The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Sept/Oct 1994.

Becker, Dr Robert:  1985,The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, William Morrow, N.Y.

Babacek, Mojmir: International Movement for the Ban of Manipulation of The Human Nervous System: http://mindcontrolforums.com/babacek.htm and go to: Ban of Manipulation of Human Nervous System

“Is it Feasible to Manipulate the Human Brain at a Distance?”

“Psychoelectronic Threat to Democracy”

Nature:  “Advances in Neuroscience May Threaten Human Rights”, Vol, 391, Jan. 22, 1998, p. 316; (ref Jean- Pierre Changeux)

Space Preservation Act: Bill H.R.2977 and HR 3616 IH in 107th Congress – 2nd Session: see: http://www.raven1.net/govptron.htm

Sessions European Parliament:

Click at Plenary Sessions, scroll down to Reports by A4 number, click, choose 1999 and fill in oo5 to A4

Delgado, Jose M.R: 1969. “Physical Control  of the Mind: Towards a Psychocivilized Society”, Vol. 41, World Perspectives, Harper Row, N.Y.

US News & World Report:  Lockheed Martin Aeronautics/ Dr John Norseen; Report January 3/10 2000, P.67

Freud, Sigmund:  1919: Art and Literature:” The Uncanny”.  Penguin,
Also  “Those Wrecked by Success.”

Marks, John:   1988 :The CIA and Mind Control – the Search for the Manchurian Candidate,  ISBN 0-440-20137-3

Persinger, M.A. “On the Possibility of Directly Accessing Every Human Brain by Electromagnetic Induction of Fundamental Algorythms”; In Perception and Motor Skills,  June, 1995, vol. 80, p. 791 – 799

Tyler, J.“Electromagnetic Spectrum in Low Intensity Conflict,” in  “Low Intensity Conflict and Modern Technology”,    ed. Lt. Col. J. Dean, USAF, Air University Press, Centre For Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education, Maxwell Air Force base, Alabama, June, 1986.

Rees, Martin Our Final Century:  2003, Heinemann.

Conrad, Joseph: The Secret Sharer, 1910.  Signet Classic.

Maupassant, Guy de: Le Horla, 1886. Livre de Poche.

Carole Smith is a British psychoanalyst. In recent years she has been openly critical of government use of intrusive technology on non-consenting citizens for the development of methods of state control. Carole Smith
E-mail: rockpool@dircon.co.uk

Global Research Articles by Carole Smith

by Carole Smith

Global Research, October 18, 2007
Journal of Psycho-Social Studies, 2003.

Wonder Weapons: The Pentagon’s Quest for Nonlethal Arms (US News & World Report 7/7/97)

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 17/06/2010

The Pentagon’s quest for nonlethal arms is amazing. But is it smart?

Tucked away in the corner of a drab industrial park in Huntington Beach, Calif., is a windowless, nondescript building. Inside, under extremely tight security, engineers and scientists are working on devices whose ordinary appearance masks the oddity of their function. One is cone shaped, about the size of a fire hydrant. Another is a 3-foot-long metal tube, mounted on a tripod, with some black boxes at the operator’s end. These are the newest weapons of war.

For hundreds of years, sci-fi writers have imagined weapons that might use energy waves or pulses to knock out, knock down, or otherwise disable enemies–without necessarily killing them. And for a good 40 years the U.S. military has quietly been pursuing weapons of this sort. Much of this work is still secret, and it has yet to produce a usable “nonlethal” weapon. But now that the cold war has ended and the United States is engaged in more humanitarian and peacekeeping missions, the search for weapons that could incapacitate people without inflicting lethal injuries has intensified. Police, too, are keenly interested. Scores of new contracts have been let, and scientists, aided by government research on the “bioeffects” of beamed energy, are searching the electromagnetic and sonic spectrums for wavelengths that can affect human behavior. Recent advancements in miniaturized electronics, power generation, and beam aiming may finally have put such pulse and beam weapons on the cusp of practicality, some experts say.

Weapons already exist that use lasers, which can temporarily or permanently blind enemy soldiers. So-called acoustic or sonic weapons, like the ones in the aforementioned lab, can vibrate the insides of humans to stun them, nauseate them, or even “liquefy their bowels and reduce them to quivering diarrheic messes,” according to a Pentagon briefing. Prototypes of such weapons were recently considered for tryout when U.S. troops intervened in Somalia. Other, stranger effects also have been explored, such as using electromagnetic waves to put human targets to sleep or to heat them up, on the microwave-oven principle. Scientists are also trying to make a sonic cannon that throws a shock wave with enough force to knock down a man.

While this and similar weapons may seem far-fetched, scientists say they are natural successors to projects already underway–beams that disable the electronic systems of aircraft, computers, or missiles, for instance. “Once you are into these antimateriel weapons, it is a short jump to antipersonnel weapons,” says Louis Slesin, editor of the trade journal Microwave News. That’s because the human body is essentially an electrochemical system, and devices that disrupt the electrical impulses of the nervous system can affect behavior and body functions. But these programs–particularly those involving antipersonnel research–are so well guarded that details are scarce. “People [in the military] go silent on this issue,” says Slesin, “more than any other issue. People just do not want to talk about this.”

Projects underway. To learn what the Pentagon has been doing, U.S. News talked to more than 70 experts and scoured biomedical and engineering journals, contracts, budgets, and research proposals. The effort to develop exotic weapons is surprising in its range. Scores of projects are underway, most with funding of several hundred thousand dollars each. One Air Force lab plans to spend more than $100 million by 2003 to research the “bioeffects” of such weaponry.

The benefits of bloodless battles for soldiers and law enforcement are obvious. But the search for new weapons–cloaked as they are in secrecy–faces hurdles. One is the acute skepticism of many conventional-weapons experts. “It is interesting technology but it won’t end bloodshed and wars,” says Harvey Sapolsky, director of the Security Studies Program at MIT. Says Charles Bernard, a former Navy weapons-research director: “I have yet to see one of these ray gun things that actually works.” And if they do work, other problems arise: Some so-called nonlethal weapons could end up killing rather than just disabling victims if used at the wrong range. Others may easily be thwarted by shielding.

Sterner warnings come from ethicists. Years ago the world drafted conventions and treaties to attempt to set rules for the use of bullets and bombs in war. But no treaties govern the use of unconventional weapons. And no one knows what will happen to people exposed to them over the long term.

Moreover, medical researchers worry that their work on such things as the use of electromagnetic waves to stimulate hearing in the deaf or to halt seizures in epileptics might be used to develop weaponry. In fact, the military routinely has approached the National Institutes of Health for research information. “DARPA [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency] has come to us every few years to see if there are ways to incapacitate the central nervous system remotely,” Dr. F. Terry Hambrecht, head of the Neural Prosthesis Program at NIH, told U.S. News. “But nothing has ever come of it,” he said. “That is too science fiction and far-fetched.” Still, the Pentagon plans to conduct human testing with lasers and acoustics in the future, says Charles Swett, an assistant for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict. Swett insists that the testing will be constrained and highly ethical. It may not be far off. The U.S. Air Force expects to have microwave weapons by the year 2015 and other nonlethal weaponry sooner. “When that does happen,” warns Steven Metz, professor of national security affairs at the U.S. Army War College, “I think there will be a public uproar. We need an open debate on them now.”

Laser ethics

What happened with U.S. forces in Somalia foreshadows the impending ethical dilemmas. In early 1995, some U.S. marines were supplied with so-called dazzling lasers. The idea was to inflict as little harm as possible if Somalis turned hostile. But the marines’ commander then decided that the lasers should be “de-tuned” to prevent the chance of their blinding citizens. With their intensity thus diminished, they could be used only for designating or illuminating targets.

On March 1, 1995, commandos of U.S. Navy SEAL Team 5 were positioned at the south end of Mogadishu airport. At 7 a.m., a technician from the Air Force’s Phillips Laboratory, developer of the lasers, used one to illuminate a Somali man armed with a rocket-propelled grenade. A SEAL sniper shot and killed the Somali. There was no question the Somali was aiming at the SEALs. But the decision not to use the laser to dazzle or temporarily blind the man irks some of the nonlethal-team members. “We were not allowed to disable these guys because that was considered inhumane,” said one. “Putting a bullet in their head is somehow more humane?”

Despite such arguments, the International Red Cross and Human Rights Watch have since led a fight against antipersonnel lasers. In the fall of 1995, the United States signed a treaty that prohibits the development of lasers designed “to cause permanent blindness.” Still, laser weapons are known to have been developed by the Russians, and proliferation is a big concern. Also, the treaty does not forbid dazzling or “glare” lasers, whose effects are temporary. U.S. military labs are continuing work in this area, and commercial contractors are marketing such lasers to police.

Acoustic pain

The next debate may well focus on acoustic or sonic weapons. Benign sonic effects are certainly familiar, ranging from the sonic boom from an airplane to the ultrasound instrument that “sees” a baby in the uterus. The military is looking for something less benign–an acoustic weapon with frequencies tunable all the way up to lethal. Indeed, Huntington Beach-based Scientific Applications & Research Associates Inc. (SARA) has built a device that will make internal organs resonate: The effects can run from discomfort to damage or death. If used to protect an area, its beams would make intruders increasingly uncomfortable the closer they get. “We have built several prototypes,” says Parviz Parhami, SARA’s CEO. Such acoustic fences, he says, could be deployed today. He estimates that five to 10 years will be needed to develop acoustic rifles and other more exotic weapons, but adds, “I have heard people as optimistic as one to two years.” The military also envisions acoustic fields being used to control riots or to clear paths for convoys.

SARA’s acoustic devices have already been tested at the Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base, near the company’s Huntington Beach office. And they were considered for Somalia. “We asked for acoustics,” says one nonlethal weapons expert who was there. But the Department of Defense said, “No,” since they were still untested. The Pentagon feared they could have caused permanent injury to pregnant women, the old, or the sick. Parhami sees acoustics “as just one more tool” for the military and law enforcement. “Like any tool, I suppose this can be abused,” he says. “But like any tool, it can be used in a humane and ethical way.”

Toward the end of World War II, the Germans were reported to have made a different type of acoustic device. It looked like a large cannon and sent out a sonic boomlike shock wave that in theory could have felled a B-17 bomber. In the mid-1940s, the U.S. Navy created a program called Project Squid to study the German vortex technology. The results are unknown. But Guy Obolensky, an American inventor, says he replicated the Nazi device in his laboratory in 1949. Against hard objects the effect was astounding, he says: It could snap a board like a twig. Against soft targets like people, it had a different effect. “I felt like I had been hit by a thick rubber blanket,” says Obolensky, who once stood in its path. The idea seemed to founder for years until recently, when the military was intrigued by its nonlethal possibilities. The Army and Navy now have vortex projects underway. The SARA lab has tested its prototype device at Camp Pendleton, one source says.

Electromagnetic heat

The Soviets were known to have potent blinding lasers. They were also feared to have developed acoustic and radio-wave weapons. The 1987 issue of Soviet Military Power, a cold war Pentagon publication, warned that the Soviets might be close to “a prototype short-range tactical RF [radio frequency] weapon.” The Washington Post reported that year that the Soviets had used such weapons to kill goats at 1 kilometer’s range. The Pentagon, it turns out, has been pursuing similar devices since the 1960s.

Typical of some of the more exotic proposals are those from Clay Easterly. Last December, Easterly–who works at the Health Sciences Research Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory–briefed the Marine Corps on work he had conducted for the National Institute of Justice, which does research on crime control. One of the projects he suggested was an electromagnetic gun that would “induce epilepticlike seizures.” Another was a “thermal gun [that] would have the operational effect of heating the body to 105 to 107” degrees Fahrenheit. Such effects would bring on discomfort, fevers, or even death.

But, unlike the work on blinding lasers and acoustic weapons, progress here has been slow. The biggest problem is power. High-powered microwaves intended to heat someone standing 200 yards away to 105 degrees Fahrenheit may kill someone standing 10 yards away. On the other hand, electromagnetic fields weaken quickly with distance from the source. And beams of such energy are difficult to direct to their target. Mission Research Corp. of Albuquerque, N.M., has used a computer model to study the ability of microwaves to stimulate the body’s peripheral nervous system. “If sufficient peripheral nerves fire, then the body shuts down to further stimulus, producing the so-called stun effect,” an abstract states. But, it concludes, “the ranges at which this can be done are only a few meters.”

Nonetheless, government laboratories and private contractors are pursuing numerous similar programs. A 1996 Air Force Scientific Advisory Board report on future weapons, for instance, includes a classified section on a radio frequency or “RF Gunship.” Other military documents confirm that radio-frequency antipersonnel weapons programs are underway. And the Air Force’s Armstrong Laboratory at Brooks Air Force Base in Texas is heavily engaged in such research. According to budget documents, the lab intends to spend more than $110 million over the next six years “to exploit less-than-lethal biological effects of electromagnetic radiation for Air Force security, peacekeeping, and war-fighting operations.”

Low-frequency sleep

From 1980 to 1983, a man named Eldon Byrd ran the Marine Corps Nonlethal Electromagnetic Weapons project. He conducted most of his research at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute in Bethesda, Md. “We were looking at electrical activity in the brain and how to influence it,” he says. Byrd, a specialist in medical engineering and bioeffects, funded small research projects, including a paper on vortex weapons by Obolensky. He conducted experiments on animals–and even on himself–to see if brain waves would move into sync with waves impinging on them from the outside. (He found that they would, but the effect was short lived.)

By using very low frequency electromagnetic radiation–the waves way below radio frequencies on the electromagnetic spectrum–he found he could induce the brain to release behavior-regulating chemicals. “We could put animals into a stupor,” he says, by hitting them with these frequencies. “We got chick brains–in vitro–to dump 80 percent of the natural opioids in their brains,” Byrd says. He even ran a small project that used magnetic fields to cause certain brain cells in rats to release histamine. In humans, this would cause instant flulike symptoms and produce nausea. “These fields were extremely weak. They were undetectable,” says Byrd. “The effects were nonlethal and reversible. You could disable a person temporarily,” Byrd hypothesizes. “It [would have been] like a stun gun.”

Byrd never tested any of his hardware in the field, and his program, scheduled for four years, apparently was closed down after two, he says. “The work was really outstanding,” he grumbles. “We would have had a weapon in one year.” Byrd says he was told his work would be unclassified, “unless it works.” Because it worked, he suspects that the program “went black.” Other scientists tell similar tales of research on electromagnetic radiation turning top secret once successful results were achieved. There are clues that such work is continuing. In 1995, the annual meeting of four-star U.S. Air Force generals–called CORONA–reviewed more than 1,000 potential projects. One was called “Put the Enemy to Sleep/Keep the Enemy From Sleeping.” It called for exploring “acoustics,” “microwaves,” and “brain-wave manipulation” to alter sleep patterns. It was one of only three projects approved for initial investigation.

Direct contact

As the military continues its search for nonlethal weapons, one device that works on contact has already hit the streets. It is called the “Pulse Wave Myotron.” A sales video shows it in action. A big, thuggish-looking “criminal” approaches a well-dressed woman. As he tries to choke her, she touches him with a white device about the size of a pack of cigarettes. He falls to the floor in a fetal position, seemingly paralyzed but with eyes open, and he does not recover for minutes.

“Contact with the Myotron,” says the narrator, “feels like millions of tiny needles are sent racing through the body. This is a result of scrambling the signals from the motor cortex region of the brain,” he says. “It is horrible,” says William Gunby, CEO of the company that developed the Myotron. “It is no toy.” The Myotron overrides voluntary–but not involuntary–muscle movements, so the victim’s vital functions are maintained. Sales are targeted at women, but law enforcement officers and agencies–including the Arizona state police and bailiffs with the New York Supreme Court–have purchased the device, Gunby says. A special model built for law enforcement, called the Black Widow, is being tested by the FBI, he says. “I hope they don’t order a lot soon,” he adds. “The Russian government just ordered 100,000 of them, and I need to replenish my stock.”

The U.S. military also has shown interest in the Myotron. “About the time of the gulf war, I got calls from people in the military,” recalls Gunby. “They asked me about bonding the Myotron’s pulse wave to a laser beam so that everyone in the path of the laser would collapse.” While it could not be done, Gunby says, he nonetheless was warned to keep quiet. “I was told that these calls were totally confidential,” he says, “and that they would completely deny it if I ever mentioned it.”

Some say such secrecy is necessary in new-weapons development. But others think it is a mistake. “Because the programs are secret, the sponsorship is low level, and the technology is unconventional,” says William Arkin of Human Rights Watch Arms Project, “the military has not done any of the things to determine if the money is being well spent or the programs are a good idea.” It should not be long before the evidence is in.

The History of Mind Control: What We Can Prove and What We Can’t

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 17/06/2010

Recovered from the Internet Archive: Way Back Machine on 17/ 6/10

CKLN-FM Mind Control Series — Part 6

Lecture by Dr. Alan Scheflin
The History of Mind Control:
What we can prove and what we can’t

Back to CKLN Series Table of Contents

From the Ryerson CKLN FM (88.1 in Toronto) Mind Control Series
CKLN-FM 88.1 Toronto the International Connection
Producer/interviewer Wayne Morris


Part 1
Part 2

Part 1

Alan Scheflin:

… for you in the next two hours, is that mind control is a valid subject, we can prove a good deal of its history and its postulates, and especially in this litigious climate when people argue that therapists and others are crazy in believing in things like mind control, it’s my function to show that the subject has validation across several centuries, and especially a rich history in this century. What I want to do is use slides to illustrate my talk, and so if we could lower the lights you’ll be able to see the slides better, and let’s begin. let me begin. Can we… Yeah. Great. Let me see… {pause} All right. Naturally, the history of mind control begins with the proverbial hole in the head. This is the, an illustration of a trephined skull, the first known medical intervention for mental illness. There are many such skulls that have been recovered from civilizations throughout the world, suggesting that trephining, which is as you can tell an early form of lobotomy, was well-practiced by many ancient civilizations. The reason why the proverbial hole-in- the-head here is important to us, is that this was a therapeutic procedure built upon a medical philosophy, and the philosophy is one of possession. It seems to me that in many ways as I’ll suggest to you, these notions have come back again in the twentieth century, and so I thought it appropriate to start with them now. The possession idea carried through well into the Middle Ages, when possession theories of mental illness were prevalent, and cures based on them were equally as prevalent and indeed necessary. This is an illustration of medieval Moon Madness, and some of the dancing episodes that went throughout the Middle Ages. The treatment of choice was exorcism which you seen an illustration of here, if you look all the way over on the left, the woman being held by a group of men, there’s a devil coming out of her head. This was, of course, the early equivalent of Multiple Personality Disorder and the notion of possession theory, the body being inhabited by other beings, is an important aspect of dissociation. The theory may have changed somewhat, but there is certainly a direct history from the possession ideas to the dissociation ideas that we experience today. The first, the first real treatise, I think, in mind control, which brought together possession ideas in to a textbook, is THE MALLEUS MALEFICARUM, which is written in 1484, it’s called THE WITCH’S HAMMER, and I was interested to note that in the latest issue of, I think, NEWSWEEK MAGAZINE, with the cover story on the brain, there is a one-page description of THE MALLEUS MALEFICARUM by a novelist who wrote a woman’s novel based on its terms. THE MALLEUS was used as a bible for witch-hunting, and it tells you how to identify witches and how especially to interrogate them, and how to cure them–the cure usually being killing them–but the value of THE MALLEUS, I think, is two-fold. It is probably the second known text book in history on cross-examination techniques, the first one being THE PLATONIC DIALOGUES. And so, we get in THE MALLEUS, a systemization of the knowledge of how to do interrogations to lead people to give confessions that you want them to give, and so in the history of mind control it plays a very important role, because this is, this is the work that was used by the inquisitors throughout the Middle Ages and thereafter to obtain confessions and indeed false confessions. THE MALLEUS itself then was read by police departments centuries later and used as the beginning of the development of police manual. Let me jump ahead a couple of centuries until last century, the #1800’s, with the birth of psychiatry, and it perhaps is no surprise that there is a common link to possession theories and the birth of psychiatry, in that most psychiatric treatments had the same elements of violence that we see in THE MALLEUS and that we see in the exorcism, and beyond that. It’s the cast-the-demons-out… I’m gonna run through a series of slides here, all taken from psychiatric text books, on the way in which people were treated. This one is an individual who was chained to a wall, and this is a form of a straitjacket as you can see, where a person is tied directly to a drain pipe in the wall. Here is an early version of the, of the straightjacket itself. It was beliefs that these people were inhabited by demons, and that in order to get those demons out exorcism was replaced either with violence or with severe restraint. But a century ago they also had something that we tend to consider as modern but is not–shock treatment. The shock done, however, was usually a different form than electricity since they had not yet invented electricity. This is a water shock treatment, and another version of it appears here, where an individual is left blind-folded on the platform, suddenly the platform falls from beneath him and he’s dumped into a bucket of ice cold water. This was intended to be shocking. Another form of shock treatment was to fire a cannon behind somebody without them knowing that it was gonna happen. Again, the idea was to use a form of violent cure because of a theory of violent possession. Interestingly enough, even electric shock has a history in antiquity. It did not… We did not need the development of electricity to have electric shock.

The ancient Egyptians used to take a torpedo fish and slap it on the forehead of people who were possessed, and the fish would discharge an electric current, and that’s the earliest record of electroshock treatment. This is a device that {pause} nobody can ever guess the importance of. It’s an ovary compressor, and I’ll leave it to your imagination to, to consider how painful it must be to have experienced it. Seclusion in its worst form is the wooden crib here. This is a form of containment in which you can see that person is totally strapped into a crib with no way to move. This, however, was not the worst form of restraint. It took a leading psychiatrist to develop that. This is the rotating chair. A person could last only a few seconds in this chair without becoming nauseous and eventually losing consciousness. And then there was the tranquilizing chair, all of these devices were used in the late #1800’s, the last two of them were developed by Benjamin Rush, a signer of the Declaration Of Independence, and his face appears on the seal of the American Psychiatric Association as its founder. It’s not my desire to criticize psychiatry here, but rather to make the point, in terms of mind control, that we began studying the human mind and mental illness with a theory of possession and a theory of cure based on violence, and from that we’ll see the various refinements. Perhaps the first of the refinements, and the one that’s notoriously wrong, was the leading psychological theory of the 1800’s, and that is phrenology–that you can measure the exterior of the brian or rather of the skull in order to understand the interior of the mind, and this is an illustration of a phrenologist’s chart, the theory being that there is a direct correlation between a person’s characteristics as an individual, and their skulls and the lumps and other aspects to be found on the skull. The theory, of course, is completely wrong, but it occupied a good deal of the 1800’s and was the leading theory of psychology at that time. It led to further variants in terms of face- reading… The importance of the theory is not that it was wrong, but rather that it led people to begin to try to measure internal states. And so, from an erroneous theory people began to look inside the brain to see how you can find external correlations with the brain, and we come across what I think is the great paradox in all of healing, and that is that the more you learn how to cure people the more you learn how to harm them, and for every step forward in relieving mental illness you can take a step backwards in causing it. And so, for people whose interest is in control of the mind, their data comes from how to help the mind, and so there is no step forward that does not involve equally, in the hands of malevolent people, a step backwards. The idea of mind control turned more serious however and in our concerns more contemporary when we come to hypnosis. This is Hypnos, the Greek god of sleep. Of course, hypnosis is not sleep and so the name itself is deceptive as to the mechanism of hypnosis, but hypnosis began the modern era with Mesmer, whose theories were also wrong not only wrong but plagiarised, on inter planetary or planetary magnetism affecting mental states and so forth. What Mesmer really happened upon without realizing it was the beginning of the idea of the laws of suggestion, and what he did is set up what is called a baquet, and you can see here it’s an oak tub from which iron bars extrude, and the French nobility would come and touch the iron bars which were in the tub, the tub was filled with water with iron filings, and people would then have convulsive states which were pleasant enough for them to repeat quite frequently. Some slides of the baquette… This was high society, not only treatment but also entertainment. You can see at the left a woman has fainted. That was quite common. Here’s a colour slide of the same kind of event.

Mesmer was, his work was studied by a Presidential Commission or rather a King’s Commission. King Louis XVI appointed a special commission to study Mesmerism. At the time it was receiving rave notices from the public and condemnation from medical societies. Here’s a cartoon of the time of animal magnetism, you can see the animal doing the hypnosis, and another cartoon debunking animal magnetism. The report that was issued on the work of Mesmer’s student des Lond, was highly critical. The commission found that there was nothing to the interplanetary theories and the magnetic theories, but they were then forced to explain why Mesmer got so many curs, and they attributed the cures to the power of imagination, and rather than study the power of imagination as a way to cure individuals, the commission left the issue alone, and it took a hundred years for people to pick up that essential point, that manipulation of the imagination could be used to manipulate the mind. The commission also issued a secondary report that was stamped “eyes only” for the King’s eyes only, and in that report the commissioners said that there was an aspect of magnetism that was so dangerous that the practice would be stopped at once. It was a menace to morals, that the attraction that developed between the magnetizer and the subject being magnetized was so great that seductions were inevitable, and therefore we have the first inkling of the relationship between hypnosis and hypnotic seduction in this secret report for the King’s eyes only. Mesmer died in disgrace and in exile after the report appeared, and hypnosis, which was still called animal magnetism at the time, fell into disgrace but not into complete abandonment. It wasn’t until about fifty or sixty years later that James Braid, a Scottish physician, coined the term hypnosis and hypnotism, and it wasn’t until about fifty years after that that hypnosis begins to be studied in a serious way, and the problems of mind control, using hypnosis as the vehicle again resurface. The Victorians were interested in hypnosis ’cause it was fun to be hypnotized. They lacked the joys that we have, such as Geraldo, and so they had to entertain themselves by using hypnosis for their parlour games. And you can see a man here drinking milk out of a saucer on the floor, he had just been hypnotized. And so, stage hypnosis at the turn of the century, from the 1890’s to the 1910’s and ’20’s, was one of the most well-known and well-attended and lucrative forms of entertainment. … just a couple of artifacts from that time. Here’s a brochure from a stage hypnotism show. Walter Bodey, an English hypnotist, was perhaps one of the most famous of the stage performers. He had a hypnosis and electrical show. You can see on there that, a statement, “The real Trilby,” going back to Svengali. We’ll return to that in a moment. This is James Bodey. He lives on in history for a reason people don’t remember any more, and that is, he was the inspiration for an extremely young comic who got his start by mimicking Bodey, and here’s the young comic, here’s the two of them together, Bodey on the right and Charley Chaplain on the left. And so, Charley Chaplain’s career began by studying Bodey’s mechanisms and his mannerisms on stage, and then making comedy of them. During the middle… During the Victorian era people’s exposure to hypnosis was not only as a form of entertainment, but it seemed like a form of mind control as well. You could get people to do anything that you asked of them. You could have them be suspended between two chairs, you could even stand on them when they were suspended between two chairs, and you could do a lot worse as well. If you’re sensitive, please don’t watch the next two slides. This is an iron bar held by eyelets, put into the eye lids of a subject, and this a stage hypnotist in Georgia, and as if that isn’t bad enough to suspend an iron bar from the eye lids, he took it one step further and then pulled a young woman on roller skates. So, it’s not always fun to be hypnotized, and some people have taken the idea of stage hypnosis, it seems to me, far beyond where it should be entitled to go. One of those people is Barry Konnikoff, who traffics under the name of Potentials Unlimited. In one of his later… He has self-hypnosis tapes which were available all over the place. I’ve heard he’s gone bankrupt now and I certainly hope that’s true. In his later round of tapes he argued that women who have been sexually abused or raped deserve it because of what they did in prior lives. Now, the First Amendment perhaps protects that. On the other hand, it is… There aren’t words that would describe a person who would make money out of that kind of a theory, so I won’t waste our time on him. I want to get back to the central theme of mind control, which starts with Jean Martin Charcot, who was the foremost neurologist of the time. While the stage hypnotists were persuading people that minds could be controlled by hypnosis, the professionals were learning hypnosis as well, and they were learning it largely from a small group of people, the most influential of whom was Charcot. Charcot, as the greatest neurologist in Europe at the time, was frequently visited by kings and princes and certainly all of the most elite of the medical profession from around the world, and in his clinic at La Sault Petrier in Paris, he would demonstrate hypnotic phenomena. He would, in his demonstrations, induce neurotic symptoms in people. People who came in with an inability to move one limb, in hypnosis would be able to move that limb, but he would transfer the neurotic symptom to the other limb, and so he could create and destroy and eliminate and transpose neurotic conditions, and this was a remarkable demonstration which impressed a number of people in the audience, but his theories were at odds with his major contemporaries, le Beau who was on the left and HipoHypolee Bernheim who was, on the right. There was in France at the time, this second school of thought about hypnosis. Charcot believed that people who could be hypnotized were hysterics and that hypnosis was a form of hysterical dissociation. Bernheim, based on the work of le Beau and his own work thereafter, believed that hypnosis was a form of suggestion, and that the manipulation of suggestion did not need a former neurotic condition. Here’s Bernheim. Bernheim and Charcot often appeared against each other in a series of criminal cases that appeared throughout France, on the issue of the anti- social production of crime with hypnosis. A person who studied from both of these people and was influenced by both of them was Sigmond Freud. This is a picture of him on his wedding day, and a better-known portrait of him in his old age, and then the infamous couch. In his London office over the couch Freud had a picture of Charcot’s demonstration, doing the demonstration that I showed you a few slides back. Let me get to that. This was the, a picture that hung over the couch in Freud’s office in England. Now, Freud was very much influenced by the hypnosis theories, and worked with hypnosis for a year, but then abandoned it, and it wasn’t clear why he did abandon hypnosis. Some theorists have argued, and I think correctly, that he was a lousy hypnotist, {laughter from audience} and that seemed to be true, and he couldn’t, as a result, get deep enough trances to have effect on his patients. Other theorists have argued, and Freud’s own writings tend to support a secondary hypothesis, and that is that Freud was scared of the seductive power of hypnosis, that the ability to move people into altered states of consciousness gave a feeling to the hypnotist of some such omnipotence that it was in itself seductive. And Freud wrote that in one of his patients, as soon as the hypnotic encounter had ended she jumped up and threw her arms around him and hugged and kissed him, and he did not attribute that to his handsome demeanour. He said it must be some other force at work and it so frightened him, he said, that he never used hypnosis again. And I think that he’s harking back to the Mesmer Commission’s noticing that there is a manipulative power in hypnosis that the subject may not be able to resist, but also the hypnotizer may not be able to resist as well. Bernheim, by the way, and Albert Muhl, a German hypnotist in the 1880’s and the 1890’s, had already given the world the false memory syndrome. They called it retroactive hallucinations at the time, and they wrote quite openly in their works that they were concerned that through the power of suggestion you could create an impenetrable witness for a court of law. That by hypnotizing somebody, you could induce them to tell a false story, that story would be impervious to cross- examination, because the individual would sincerely believe in the truth of what he or she was saying, and therefore you would never be able to effectively cross- examine that person, because they would continually insist on the truth of what they were reporting. And so, by the early 1890’s the phenomenon of false memory had already been noted and been written about extensively, and its application for courts of law had already been written about. There is absolutely nothing new in the false memory issue. It is simply a failure to read the literature from a hundred years ago. What’s more important is, where are we gonna go from now with false memory, and I think the answer is where we have already come from a hundred years ago. The next step beyond false memory was the beginning to use these techniques deliberately for purpose of mind control. And essentially the first steps are taken by A. R. Luria in his institute in Moscow. Luria reasoned that if you can get people to have false confessions with hypnosis, you probably could build affective complexes on those false confessions. In other words, you could not only get people to report things that never happened, you could get them to experience the entire range of emotions affiliated with those events. And so, Luria and his colleagues in Moscow in the 1920’s began doing research on developing neuroses built upon the implantation of false memories. That work was replicated in the 1930’s by Milton Erikson, Lawrence Cubey, and others, who verified the truth of what Luria was reporting. Now, Luria’s work was not merely academic. It had its operational uses in the next decade in the Moscow Show Trials, which are an extremely important historical event for our purposes. During the Moscow Show Trials, Stalin purged his old enemies. Now, one way you can do that is simply have them disappear, or you could have public executions. It is generally true throughout histories that regimes try to improve their own legitimacy by discrediting their predecessors. Stalin’s way of doing it was to put on trial all his former friends, and what was different about the Moscow Show Trials is that when these defendants went on trial they not only confessed to a series of crimes and sins, they could not possibly have committed, but they begged to be shot as enemies of The State. Some recent books on the prosecutor’s role in programming during the Moscow Show Trials have added some new information to our understanding of them. It was at this point that American intelligence agencies began to take notice of the mind control potential that seemed to be apparent from the Moscow Show Trials. The actual paper record though is hard to trace from the 1930’s, easier to trace from the 1940’s, and the trial that ultimately set the C.I.A. off on its investigation of mind control was the trial of Cardinal Mindszenty.

Mindszenty was a staunch anti-Communist who was then arrested by the Communists and put in the Androsi Street Prison in Hungary. The… Six months later he was put on trial, and as his predecessors a decade before, he confessed to crimes and sins that could not possibly have been true. These are a series of slides showing him at trial. The experience of Mindszenty was so frightening to American intelligence agencies, that they began to investigate whether or not the Soviets possessed some new form of mind control unknown to The West.

Here two stories develop that are both true and completely contradictory. In secret C.I.A. files you will find both of these stories validated. On the one hand the C.I.A. argued that it was afraid that it was losing the war for control of the mind, and that the Soviets had developed this new, sophisticated psychology or whatever to control the way people think and act, and that America had to catch up. We were on the defensive now and we had to, a lot of work that had to be done. One the other hand, in a document that was extremely highly classified, eyes-only for the Director of the C.I.A.’s Eyes-only, it turned out that there was a spy in the Androsi Street Prison who was reporting back to the C.I.A. everything that was happening to Mindszenty, and this Eyes-only report which I’ve read is a wonderful document. It details exactly what happened to Mindszenty. It names the Soviet hypnotists who did the work and the drugs that they used to assist them in that work. It’s a step-by-step manual for the programming of Mindszenty. And what’s particularly interesting is if you read Cardinal Mindszenty’s autobiography of the events, he really doesn’t know what happened to him, and at this point the C.I.A. had a better knowledge of the programming of Mindszenty than he had of his own programming. And so, on the one hand the Soviets, the C.I.A. knew everything that the Soviets were doing, yet on the other hand they were reporting that they were afraid that they were losing the war, and I think both of those stories are true, though they’re contradictory, and both are supported by secret C.I.A. documents. Meanwhile, a related event begins to happen. In the late 1940’s, Edward Hunter in 1949 for the first time coins the term, “brain washing,” and writes a book on it. This is one of the two books that Hunter wrote. It turned out that Hunter was an O.S.S. and later C.I.A. propagandist, and the word brainwashing was particularly useful because American prisoners of war were starting to give confessions of using germ warfare during the Korean War, and America needed a way of stopping that kind of propaganda, and the term brainwashing which had been coined by Hunter to explain the thought control programme in Communist China proved a useful vehicle. This is Edward Hunter. I was able to do one of the last interviews with him before his death. In the deep literature on brainwashing, the more academic literature on brainwashing, his view of it is called The Robot Theory, the notion that with brainwashing techniques you can turn somebody into an automaton. The Robot Theory of brainwashing is not the only theory of brainwashing, but it is the most flamboyant and it’s also the most frightening. The idea of brainwashing then in the 1950’s became the object of a lot of study and books like IN EVERY WAR BUT ONE, people who had actually gone through the experience wrote about what had happened to them and researchers like Biederman in books like this were reporting what happened to American prisoners of war and other prisoners of war. In Hawaii, an American camp was set up to be a mock prisoner of war camp to use the techniques that were being used of brainwashing. This an illustration from that camp. These are actually all Americans, but it’s a simulated exercise in brainwashing because Americans were searching for a way to inoculate our soldiers if they should get captured and put through a brainwashing experience. Would it have been possible for us to inoculate them previously so that the brainwashing would not take? While the brainwashing studies were going on, another development was happening simultaneously important to the development of mind control, and these are the sensory deprivation experiments that began in Canada with Donald Hebb and others. It was… Hebb’s original work was essentially on what’s called highway trance, the phenomena that people who will drive on highways in long stretches of road that’s pretty monotonous will to into trance. And this is a form of sensory deprivation, if you’ve got… If it’s dark at night, there’s a long road, there’s no scenery, you probably all have had the experience of realizing that suddenly you’ve driven a couple of miles but have no memory for that couple of miles passing, or you’ve gotten very drowsy. Well, the phenomenon of sensory deprivation became the subject of a good deal of study in the 1950’s. What would happen to the mind if it were deprived of sensory input, since the mind needs sensory input the way the body needs food? And in a series of studies, this is on isolation, inside the black room, students across the country in Canada and other places were put in a black room. Here’s an illustration of it. There’s essentially almost no sensory input at all. What happens to the mind? Floatation tanks and other ways of decreasing sensory input, all had the effect of causing the mind when it is deprived of sensory input to throw out a hallucinated world in order to get input back from that hallucinated world. And people, in fact, kept in isolation too long could become psychotic.

Books studying the phenomena of isolation and also in conjunction with manipulating people’s mind through techniques of brainwashing began to appear. THE BRAIN BENDERS is one, THE BATTLE FOR THE MIND by William Sergent is the foremost British book on the subject. Robert J. Lifton’s study, THOUGHT REFORM AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF TOTALISM is the classic work on the Chinese thought reform programme. Edgar Shein’s book on coercive persuasion on the Americans taken prisoner in the Korean War, RAPE OF THE MIND by Mirrileau, another classic. As all of this was happening, this was what you could call a form of coercive persuasion as Shein had suggested, but there was another event that was occurring simultaneously. The 1950’s is, in many ways, the birth of mind control experimentation, because you have the brainwashing issue, the hypnosis issues, the isolation and sensory deprivation studies, and you now get the next stream of research, which involves obedience to authority studies. I mentioned the other night Solomon Ashe’s studies on opinions and social pressure, and what Ashe did at Yale was the simplest of experiments on conformity. He drew on a blackboard a line that was one foot long and another line directly under it, parallel to it, that was two feet long. He then got six or seven people in a room, all of whom except one had been bribed, and the last one had no knowledge of the bribing of the others. He then asked them in order which one was the shorter line, and to the horror of the one who was not bribed, everyone reported that the two-foot line was the shorter line, and it was visually obvious that that was untrue, but everybody else in the room was reporting it as true. And what Ashe discovered was that the subject would report seeing the longer line as the shorter line, that he would conform to peer pressure. Cynics dismissed it on the grounds that it just showed the stupidity of Yale graduates, {slight laughter from audience} but that was not a sufficient scientific explanation, and as Walter reported the other night the experiments were done in the Navy and other places as well. Now, I want to distinguish this group of work from the others that I’ve just reported on. Here we’re talking about a form of manipulation of the mind that does not involve physical coercion. In the brainwashing work, in the isolation work, there is a form of physical intimidation that involves taking over the body and controlling the body, controlling all of the input in the mind and so forth, and so this is… A person in that situation that he or she is in that situation, that they are captive in some way. With this kind of experiment, we have what I call conversational persuasion. This is the beginning of the attempt to develop theories of social influence on free- standing populations where people are not aware that they are being held captive in any way, and indeed they’re not. The next step along the lines of obedience research, and some ways the most frightening, is the work done by Milgrim and his book OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY. If you’re not familiar with Milgrim’s work I’ll give you a very brief explanation of it. Milgrim wanted to test the hypothesis that people in Germany, good people in Germany, during the Nazi regime, were manipulated in a way to do evil, or let me restate that, Milgrim wondered why so many good people in Nazi Germany could allow such evil to happen around them knowingly. And his thesis was not the idea that there’s something inherent in the German character, but rather that there’s something inherent in people, and he was interested in showing whether or not if a Hitler-type character arose in the United States, that person would be able to get good people to do evil in this country. And so, he built a box, I don’t have a slide of it here, he built a box with thirty switches, just little light switches, and the thirty switches were in fifteen-volt increments. They were marked in fifteen-volt increments. As you moved over towards the right of the box there began to be some writing which said, “Caution! Danger! Extreme danger!,” and the last group of switches were marked in triple red X’s. Now, he then put an advertisement, again this is at Yale, so you know, maybe the cynics are right. He put an advertisement in the local New Haven newspaper for people to volunteer for the experiment. People came in and they were told that the experiment involved pain and learning, and that they would be the teachers, and that there was a student and that they could see the student, and the student they were told was hooked up to an electric grid, and every time that… The teacher was to give the student a question, and every time the student gave a wrong answer one of the switches was to be pushed. When Milgrim and his associates talked about the experiment, they concluded that nobody would push all the switches, and most people would stop pushing the switches about halfway through, because each switch was intended to deliver a higher voltage shock. The subject as about half the switches were pulled, would increasingly flinch and then scream and then yell, would then say, “I don’t want to do this any more,” would then say, “I have a heart condition! Please stop!,” and then would refuse to answer any question and would slump over. If the teacher balked at pushing the next switch, there was an experimenter there in a long, white laboratory coat with a clipboard and a pencil, who was instructed to say first, “Continue,” and then, “Please continue,” and then, “You must go on with the experiment,” and finally, “I will take responsibility.” And what Milgrim discovered is that the overwhelming number of people pushed all of the switches, and that the simple reenforcement of saying, “I will take responsibility,” or that there was an experiment going on, was sufficient to allow them to do that. Now after Milgrim’s experiments were replicated in other places, and what eventually evolved is that the horror of what he was proving was so ghastly that the scientific literature turned away from it and instead focussed on the ethics of doing that kind of experiment. Because after all, what he was doing was taking people from the street and not telling them that they were what he was studying. They thought he was studying the subject. And a lot of these people as you can imagine had severe emotional reaction once they realized that they had shocked somebody with a heart condition on a machine that went beyond extreme danger to triple X’s in red, and so the ethics of doing that type of work then created a movement in universities and other places for institutional reviews boards, etc., and the research can’t be done any more, and what Milgrim was proving, how easy it is to manipulate people by the simplest of commands, was no longer being studied and certainly not in that manner. But books like COMPLIANT BEHAVIOUR: BEYOND OBEDIENCE TO AUTHORITY, were being written to increase and replicate and extend the work of Milgrim, and here’s a report called CONFORMITY, COMPLIANCE AND CONVERSION, from the Air Force in I think around the 1950’s, an Air Force report using Milgrim’s work in Air Force conditioning. Let’s go back and talk some more about hypnosis since it plays a central in the rest of the development of mind control. Let me say that also, given the nature of the subject of mind control, there are a lot of things I’m not talking about. I’m not gonna be talking to you about the physiological aspects of mind control, to take you through the lobotomy and psycho- surgery and electrical-stimulation-of-the-brain literature, and I won’t be talking about the pharmacological aspects of mind control, the use of drugs and botanicals and chemicals for mind control, you know, but that should give you an idea of how vast the subject is. We’re just concentrating here on the psychological aspects of mind control. All right. The notion of hypnotic seduction had been noticed in the secret report to the King in France, it had been noticed by Freud in his work, and it had been noticed by many others–a series of slides on hypnotic seduction. The idea of hypnotic seduction got, I think, its greatest impetus in an #1894 book called TRILBY. And this is illustration from it with the infamous Svengali as the hypnotist, and to this day the portrait of Svengali as a hypnotist is almost as powerful as Sherlock Holmes as a detective. It’s almost the stereotype of the field. Trilby, today, would be a No. #1. best-seller, the equivalent of a No. #1. best-seller, and even bigger. It was probably the first block-buster novel. It was published in a magazine in serial form, and after the first issue appeared the magazine had to print an additional one hundred thousand copies because of the desire for people to continue the story. It… The author, George du Maurier, was launched into such public light that he ultimately hid from all, in order to preserve his privacy. He had lecture tours through the United States and Britain. Do you remember PATEN PLACE, how huge a novel that was at the time? This was the equivalent and even bigger. The story of TRILBY is the story of a hypnotist who gets total control over the personality of a young woman, and the novel itself I find to be incredibly boring, but the portrait of portrayed of the hypnotist is tremendously exciting and has lived on almost as an icon of the subject itself. There was a town in Florida, and I haven’t checked to see whether this is still true, that changed its name to Trilby, and at the centre of town they have Svengali Square. There were TRILBY parties, TRILBY hats, TRILBY clothes. It was an enormously popular and influential novel, which introduced people to the idea of the potential for hypnotic seduction, and also even worse. Let me… Since I don’t want to dwell on this aspect of mind control, let me sum it up and say that the traditional thinking has been that you cannot get people to do with hypnosis what they would not otherwise do. There is value in that thinking, because it then doesn’t encourage people to try, but if you go and talk to the hypnotists who will tell you that and you talk to them in private, they will tell you the opposite story, that within certain parameters you can get people to do things they would otherwise not do, with hypnosis, and that while hypnosis is not a magic wand or a magic potion, it is an effective facilitator for seduction or anti-social conduct. There is an increase in court cases of hypnotic seduction now, but I want to turn to the more frightening prospect of using hypnosis for the creation of anti-social crimes. Can you get… “You are in my power, you will do what I tell you.” How far can you get control of somebody using hypnosis and forms of social influence? This has been the subject of a lot of fiction, just from my library here are some of the books. THE DARKER THE NIGHT, WAS THE HYPNOTIST THE KILLER, SEEING IS BELIEVING, YOUR EYELIDS ARE GROWING HEAVY, MURDER IS SUGGESTIVE, TELEFON, which of course is a movie as well. And there are academic books like HYPNOTISM AND CRIME. Interestingly there has been no major work on the anti- social aspects of hypnosis either in the legal literature or in the psychiatric, hypnotic, or psychological literature for over thirty years. 1960 is the last time we have a full discussion of the issue of hypnotic coercion, and 1972 was the last time a hypnosis journal directed itself primarily to that issue. The texts suggest that there are cases in which people, through hypnosis, have been induced to commit crimes, but the hypnosis community has been divided as to whether those are pure cases. There is what I call the methodological dilemma that arises at this point. If you… Usually the hypnotic encounter requires a certain amount of time and a certain amount of trust, and so hypnosis researchers argue that it’s not hypnosis that facilitates either seduction or the production of anti-social acts, rather it is the relationship between the hypnotist and the subject, and therefore hypnosis is not at fault. The experimentalists discount any clinical, anecdotal material, because it’s not rigorously scientific and therefore can’t prove the conclusion of hypnotic coercion. But the experimental literature itself is discounted, because as Albert Muhl wrote a hundred years ago and Martin Orne has written as well, at some level a subject always knows that he or she is participating in an experiment. And so, there is no way to test the validity of the hypothesis, that you can induce through hypnosis anti-social conduct. On the other hand, such conduct is produced on a regular basis whatever the explanation. The one place where the studies were done, where there was no fear of ethical violation or legal consequences, was in work done by the Central Intelligence Agency, and since the work has never been fully published, I have an article that will be coming out in THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL HYPNOSIS, on the C.I.A. hypnosis experiments. It’s not my function here to criticize the intelligence agencies or to condemn what they have done. I’m instead trying to argue the point that the hypnosis community in general and psychologists and psychiatrists as well, need to know the data that was produced and which still exists in C.I.A. files. If we are going to be accused by the false memory people of using undue suggestion to get people to do things they wouldn’t otherwise do, we need to know the limits of those possibilities, and that material is in C.I.A. files, therapists are being sued across the country, they need access to that information to help defend themselves. And so, it is in the spirit of science and in the spirit of protecting therapists and patients, you know, for the good of the country, that I present this material so that we can hope that the full amount of it is ultimately revealed. I also must make a caveat. I can only report on information that I’ve seen, either through my search of C.I.A. files and my interviews with C.I.A. hypnotists and other hypnotists. There may be mistakes in what I present. I cannot correct that unless I have access to all of the material. And so, if I have made a mistake, it is a mistake that comes from not being given the material. Of course, I have in good faith worked through the material I have to tell as accurate a story as I know how. The C.I.A. began experimenting as soon as it was born in the late 1940’s. The experimentation in mind and behaviour control had already begun in the O.S.S. with hypnosis experiments, truth cerems, truth tablets, and lethal pills, as well as other kinds of experiments, but it was after the Cardinal Mindszenty episode that the C.I.A. began to really become concerned about the possibility of hypnotic coercion, and let me quote to you from a C.I.A. document at the time. This is a February 10, 1951, C.I.A. Top Secret Memo, called DEFENSE AGAINST SOVIET MEDICAL INTERROGATION AND ESPIONAGE TECHNIQUES, “Hypnotism has been reported to have been used in some cases by the Soviets as an adjunct to interrogation. It would be possible for a skilled Soviet operator to lower a prisoner’s resistance to questioning, and yet leave him with no specific recollections of having been interrogated. With respect to inducing specific action on the part of a subject by hypnotism, it would be possible to brief a prisoner or other individual, subsequently dispatch him on a mission, and successfully debrief him on his return, without his recollection of the whole proceeding.” A June 1951 C.I.A.Memo says, “C.I.A. interest is in the specific subject of devising scientific methods for controlling the minds of individuals.” And so, in the late 1940’s some essentially uncontrolled experimentation was begun by various people within the C.I.A., and a more structured programme was also undertaken which had the name Blue Bird, and that name was then changed to Artichoke, and under Projects Blue Bird and Artichoke the attempt was made to bring together all known knowledge of interrogation techniques, truth serums, polygraphs, and hypnosis, to create essentially an elite interrogation team with facility in all of those endeavours, and have them do the work that would be needed, first of all to protect against infiltration by enemy agents, and also to protect the minds of American agents who might get captured by Communist individuals.


Part 2

Wayne Morris:

We have been in the middle of an extended series on mind control here on the International Connection. This is Week #11, and we have heard so far, if you haven’t been listening for the last few months a lecture by Dr. Colin Ross and an interview with him about the U.S. government CIA and military use and creating Manchurian Candidates by creating Multlple Personality Disorder. We also heard testimony given at the Human Radiation Hearings … survivors of this … and we also heard the story of Ronald Howard Cohen, writer and activist who was abducted and drugged by CIA military. We are hearing this week, a lecture Part Two of a lecture given by Dr. Alan Scheflin, and this is entitled “The History of Mind Control: What we can prove and what we can’t”. This was given back in 1995 in Dallas, Texas at a conference and we are going to listen to Part Two today.

Alan Scheflin:

It is not my function here to criticize the Intelligence Agencies or condemn what they have done. I am instead trying to argue the point that the hypnosis community in general and psychologists and psychiatrists as well need to know the data that was produced and still exists in CIA files. If we are going to be accused by the False Memory people of using undue suggestion to get people to do things they wouldn’t otherwise do, we need to know the limits of those possibilities and that material is in CIA files. Therapists are being sued across the country. They need access to that information to help defend themselves. And so, it is in the spirit of science and in the spirit of protecting therapists and patients, and for the good of the country, that I present this material so we can hope that the full amount of it is ultimately revealed.

I also must make a caveat. I can only report on information that I have seen, either through my search of CIA files and my interviews with CIA hypnotists and other hypnotists. There may be mistakes in what I present. I cannot correct that unless I have access to all of the material. If I have made a mistake, it is a mistake that comes from not being given the material because I have in good faith worked through the material I have to tell as accurate a story as I know how.

The CIA began experimenting as soon as it was born in the late 1940’s. The experimentation in mind and behavior control had already begun in the OSS with hypnosis experiments, truth serums, truth tablets, lethal pills as well as other kinds of experiments, but it was after the Cardinal Josef Mindszenty episode that the CIA began to really become concerned about the possibility of hypnotic coercion. Let me quote to you from a CIA document at the time.

This is a February 10, 1951 CIA top secret memo called ‘Defence Against Soviet Medical Interrogation and Espionage Techniques’: “Hypnotism has been reported to have been used in some cases by the Soviets as an adjunct to interrogation. It would be possible for a skilled Soviet operator to lower the prisoner’s resistance to questioning yet leave him with no specific recollections of having been interrogated. With respect to inducing specific action on the part of the subject by hypnotism, it would be possible to brief a prisoner or other individual, subsequently despatch him on a mission and successfully debrief him on his return, without his recollection of the whole proceeding.” A June, 1951 CIA memo says, “CIA interest is in the specific subject of devising scientific methods of controlling the minds of individuals.”

In the late 1940’s, some essentially uncontrolled experimentation was begun by various people within the CIA, and a more structured program was also undertaken which had the name BLUEBIRD and that name was then changed to ARTICHOKE, and under projects BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE, the attempt was made to bring together all known knowledge of interrogation techniques, truth serums, polygraphs and hypnosis to create essentially an elite interrogation team with facility in all of those endeavours, and have them do the work that would be needed. First of all, to protect against infiltration by enemy agents, and also to protect the minds of American agents who might get captured by Communist individuals.

In the early 1950’s, Walter Smith, the Director of Central Intelligence in an EYES ONLY MEMO said he wanted to know the issue in order to know the answer to the question, “…whether effective practical techniques exist whereby an individual can be caused to become subservient to an imposed control, and subsequently that individual be unaware of the event.” The purpose of the CIA experiments by the early 1950’s was to discover the ways to control the minds of individuals. BLUEBIRD and ARTICHOKE were only one part of it. There were other parts as well.

The CIA’s facility in Langley did not exist at that time. They used office buildings throughout the Washington area, and safe houses around the country and throughout the world. Eventually in 1953 we get a new program from the CIA which is the most expansive mind control program in the history of the world. It’s genesis begins in 1953 with a speech given by Allen Dulles who was the new CIA Director. In his speech, Dulles said that we were losing control of the battle of the mind, that we were at war with the Soviet Union. He called it brain warfare, and the Soviets possessed knowledge with the United States did not. A top-secret memo two months later in June, 1953 states, “…interrogations of the individuals who had come out of North Korea across the Soviet Union to freedom recently, apparently had experienced a blank period or a period of disorientation while passing through a special zone in Manchuria.” By 1953 in other words, the notion of the Manchurian Candidates in almost those exact terms, had been theorized by the CIA. I will come back to that point in a moment, but in Dulles’ public speech on April 10, 1953 to Princeton Alumni in Hotsprings, West Virginia, he argued we had to do something to make sure we did not lose the war with the Soviet Union. About a week and a half later, he signed into law what was called MKULTRA. Walter Bowart has speculated, and I think it is a good speculation, that the MK stands for Mind Kontrol, and ULTRA was the code name given to breaking the Japanese and German codes, and so this was the code name given to breaking the code of the human mind. MKULTRA was the umbrella for 149 sub-projects. All of them were under the auspices of Sidney Gottlieb, and later directed by his boss, Richard Helms. The 149 sub-projects — you can read something about this in government documents. This is a project MKULTRA from a Joint Hearing from the United States Senate and some of the material has been made public by the Congress. Other material has not been made public but the existence of MKULTRA is not a secret, and its contours are known to some extent. Another government document explores the same territory. This one is on biomedical and behavioral research by the government.

The goal of all 149 sub-projects was mind and behavior control. Some of them involved botanical. Some of them involved psychosurgery and electrical stimulation of the brain. 9 of the sub-projects involved hypnosis. Some of the sub-projects involved things like voodoo. One of them involved circumcision to create anxiety and then manipulate the anxiety. Almost anything you could think of and things you wouldn’t think of were funded and studied. Maybe more one of the more well known studies, and one of the more notorious is the work that was done by Ewen Cameron in Canada. Cameron was the President of the Canadian Psychiatric Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the World Psychiatric Association. In his work at the Allen Memorial Institute in Montreal he had a theory that sounds unique but actually exists in “Brave New World Revisited” and even goes back to the Ancient Greeks — his notion was that you could completely erase personality by regressing an individual back to an infantile state – process he called de-patterning. Then you could program that individual with a new personality – a process he called psychic driving. In order to destroy the original personality, Cameron put his subjects to sleep for up to two months, injected them with LSD, mescaline and other psychoactive chemicals, and essentially engaged in a form of regression therapy. Age regression may be a hypnotic phenomenon, but in this sense regression was an actual regression. This was the attempt to manipulate people back to a state of infantilism. These were people who came to him who were depressed … this was the local psychiatric institute. This is where you went when you needed help. One of the people who came to him, I don’t have a slide of her, but I have done some TV shows with her, was the wife of a Member of the Canadian Parliament, Val Orlikow was her name. She is dead now. Val had just had a baby and she was suffering from post-partum depression. This meant she didn’t feel she was able to care for her baby, or for herself, and in general she was feeling unequal to the task of wifehood and motherhood, and her husband suggested maybe she could benefit from some psychiatric care, and she thought that was a good idea. They made the mistake of winding up going to Ewen Cameron and Cameron destroyed her life. She along with 10 or 11 other people ultimately sued the Canadian government and the CIA because the CIA contributed funding to Cameron’s experiments. SIXTY MINUTES did a show on this that I show from time to time. One of the people went there because he was feeling badly, and he went through the same kind of process, and they later discovered he had a minor skin disease and a single shot of cortisone would have cured it. His life was ruined, and as he put it, “Where do I go for help? I don’t trust any psychologists, or psychiatrists or therapists any more after what they did to me, and I know I need their help, but I am programmed to not trust them, so where do I go for relief?”

The experiments have been written about in detail in a number of books. This is the least reliable, Gordon Thomas’ “Journey Into Madness”. Harder to find, a Canadian book “I Swear By Apollo” is more accurate. Perhaps the best of the books is Anne Collins’, “In the Sleep Room”. In some ways the most compelling and the most, I wouldn’t want to say important, but the one that is most emotional perhaps, is Harvey Weinstein’s, “A Father, A Son and the CIA”. This is the Canadian edition. There is a slightly revised version printed by the American Psychiatric Press, “Psychiatry and the CIA”. Harvey’s father was one of those people who was depressed and went into the Allen Memorial Institute as a human being and came out as a vegetable. He never did become a whole human being again. Indeed, it was what happened to his father that led Harvey into psychiatry and Harvey’s conclusion is something that should be read by everybody in the mental health field. “After all of the knowledge of the CIA experiments, and the Army experiments and Air Force and Navy experiments have come out, after all of what we know … NOT A SINGLE RESEARCHER HAS BEEN SUBJECTED TO A SINGLE LAW SUIT OR EVEN CENSURE BY A PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR WORK THAT WAS CLEARLY ILLEGAL AND CLEARLY UNETHICAL, EVEN AT THE TIME. THE MESSAGE MUST BE, IF THERE ARE NO CONSEQUENCES TO DOING THIS KIND OF WORK, THE WORK WILL CONTINUE.” And indeed, this is most likely what has happened. Harvey’s conclusion is that if the professional organizations are not going to step up and condemn this kind of experimentation, then it will be repeated and other generations will suffer the horror that his family suffered.

Cameron’s experiment was simply considered a part of a series of brainwashing tests to regress people back to this infantile state. Now the Greeks had sleep temples that had a similar focus, but modern technology added to Cameron’s work. He used a tape loop. He would interview an individual. You have heard about Erikson’s “power words” … Cameron would use words that were important to his patients, and he would program those words in messages that he would construct on tape loops that would be played into their brain one half a million, to a million to a million and a half times … in fact these people were quite literally “programmed”.

In a state of infantilism Cameron wrote that they could endure sensory deprivation indefinitely, whereas most people would crack in about 8 hours, those people could stay there indefinitely. The psychic driving in which the tape loops were used was the attempt to reconstruct the personality and I wondered where such a fiendish idea would have come from and I found it in a 1951 science fiction novel called “The Demolished Man” by Alfred Bester, and if you are a science fiction buff I certainly encourage you to find that book and read it. Basically the theory of the novel is that when somebody commits a crime, that shows a certain boldness that society should appreciate, but it’s in the wrong direction. What they do is take criminals to the hospital and they regress them back to infantilism and then they re-build a new personality — exactly the idea that Cameron was working on with his subject had been written about a few years before he began as a science fiction novel. I won’t ever know if he had read that novel, but the studies from his work shows that it did not work and indeed it caused a great deal of pain to a great number of people.

The idea of manipulating people with hypnosis in ways that are effective, and in ways that are quite bizarre, was born in the brain of George Estabrooks. Estabrooks, a very interesting character, was working in Morton Prince’s laboratory at Harvard in the 1920’s and he had the idea that if you could cure a multiple personality with hypnosis, maybe you could create one with hypnosis. Why in the world would anyone want to create a multiple personality? Estabrooks had the solution. You could create then, a super spy or a super assassin, somebody who would do the bidding of his country and have no knowledge that he was engaged in those acts. Estabrooks said in 1928 that “…my views are somewhat different than most psychologists. I believe the hypnotist’s power to be unlimited, or rather only to be limited by his intelligence and his scruples.” In the 1920’s he went around trying to convince the military to create hypnotically controlled individuals, create a multiple personality and use that one as a courier. They thought he was crazy and ignored him until the Moscow Show Trials, and then they took him seriously, and in the archives of his work at Colgate … there is a notation that he stopped publishing in the mid-1930’s because his work had then become classified. If you read his book, this is Morton Prince’s “Dissociation of a Personality” … the classic work on multiple personality … if you read Estabrooks’ book “Hypnotism” through its various editions, what you discover is that each edition is more assertive about the validity of creating hypnotically programmed couriers and finally in an interview he gave in a local Rhode Island newspaper in 1963, he claims that, “… this is not science fiction, it is fact, I have done it.” Working for the FBI and the CIA, he would create a multiple personality, program that personality to be a courier, send that personality somewhere in the world have them return and be amnesic for all of that.

The idea may have originated with Estabrooks but he may not have been the first to actually publish it as such. Writing in “The Psychoanalytic Review” of 1947, Major Harvey Leavitt of the U.S. Army Medical Corps described the hypnotic creation of a secondary personality, “… hypnotically induced automatic writing was established early in the course of treatment as a means of expeditiously gaining access to unconscious material. After this procedure as utilized for a time, a hypnotic secondary personality was produced by suggesting that the writing was under control of a certain part of his personality unaware to him.” Leavitt then said that he created another personality in direct contrast to the one already established so he could work the two created personalities off against one another. He concluded, “… regardless of whether the production of multiple personalities by means of hypnosis could be construed as additional proof that hypnosis is an artificially induced hysteria or whether the multiple personalities were artificial entities resulting from direct suggestions … there exists a close relationship with personalities spontaneously arising in hysterical dissociation. The importance of producing multiple personalities experimentally lies in the fact that certain elements of the original personality may be isolated which manifest a minimum of censorship influences and thus may serve as helpful ajuncts in hypno- analysis.”

That was not the purpose for the intelligence agencies in working with the idea of creating a multiple personality. The story of the intelligence agencies creating multiple personalities to use as couriers and assassins may have begun with Estabrooks, and indeed in CIA documents you can see Estabrooks’ theories worked out and discussed, but the genesis of the work begins in 1951 in the CIA Office of Security where an official named Morris Allen got the idea that CIA agents should be trained in hypnosis and in order to train them in hypnosis, he arranged with them to go up to New York and get training from a stage hypnotist. As soon as he and the agents got to New York, the stage hypnotist spent an hour and a half with them, regaling them with tales of hypnotic seduction – of how when the hypnotist went on the road, the he would sleep with a different woman each night – some of them he would give hypnotic hallucinations that he was their husband, others he would use other techniques – but this was a technique he had found very productive for his own sexual favours. The CIA was of course delighted to hear all of this and reported so in the documents. If he could use the technique to manipulate people that way, this was what they wanted to learn and so that’s how they got trained.

Then from 2-3,000 pages of documentation going from 1951 to 1954 – Morse Allen and his group replicated all of the known hypnosis experiments involving people putting their hands in acid or jars of snakes, in shooting people dead, involving the French and Germans – there are all of those experiments American researchers, Estabrooks and others had conducted. But they (CIA) wanted to go further and explore the possibility of using hypnosis to create a programmed courier and a programmed assassin. The multiple personality itself may have come from Jekyll and Hyde which was very popular at the time. Another illustration of that idea in which two entirely different people can be within the same body – one being the embodiment of good, the other the embodiment of evil. It was good fiction, but it also was part of the genesis from Morton Prince’s work. {slide: an Italian depiction of multiple personality – you can see the two faces pointing in other directions}

By the 1950’s, the popular press was reporting in “The Three Faces of Eve”, the existence of multiple personality – the three faces of course were more than three faces – and the final face was not the final face. Eve was Chris Sizemore finally telling the story with her real name and then telling it again in “A Mind of Her Own”. Well, her mind may be her own, but her life isn’t. She is now suing the film company which claims that the movie, “The Three Faces of Eve”, means they own the story of her life. She claims they only own up to the time she had three faces, and that the other faces still belong to her. So she is still not in control of her identity and the fight goes on. [slide: here she is in person}

Sybil was then the next known or highly reported case of multiple personality disorder. Herb Spiegel tells me that Sybil was not a multiple, and that when he treated her in Cornelia Wilbur’s absence, that Sybil never had any need to express any other personalities with Herb. Herb admits she was brilliant, and also extremely mentally ill, but that she was not a multiple, and he refused to participate in the writing or publishing of the book if that was the spin they were going to take on her case. On the other hand Herb believes that multiples exist, but that the condition is extremely rare and so people have argued that she was smart enough to know he wouldn’t believe it, and therefore smart enough to know to conceal the personalities so the debate goes on.

The use of hypnosis to create multiple personalities and in general for intelligence purposes appears in a number of confidential secret documents just a few of which I will throw up on the screen. Some stories have leaked out about how the CIA hid it, and they didn’t tell anybody about it. It’s very simple. The CIA explodes the old theory of hypnotic moral curb. They came to the conclusion that people can be induced to do things that would violate their moral codes, and the folklore that you can’t get people to do things against their will was simply untrue, and they carried those experiments further in to study ways to create unwitting killers. CIA documents tell of a 1954 project to create involuntary assassins. This is the end product of Morse Allen’s work. By 1954 he had exploded the moral code theory; he had replicated all of the experiments of hypnotic coercision; and had conducted other experiments on his own, but all of these were in fact laboratory type experiments. He wanted to do more and see whether operational use could be put to these principles. His group prepared a film called, “THE BLACK ART”. In the film, an “Oriental Character” is having a drink with an American agent. A drug is surreptitiously placed in the drink that causes the Oriental man to fall asleep. While dozing, he is hypnotized and programmed. The CIA had already experimented on hypnotizing people in sleep conditions and so forth. The next scene shows the Oriental man opening a safe that contains secret files. He removes the files and brings them to an American agent who reinforces the hypnotic suggestion. At this point, there is a voiceover by a narrator who asks, “Could what you have seen been accomplished without the individual’s knowledge? Yes. Against the individual’s will? Yes. With complete amnesia of performing the act? Yes. How? Through the powers of suggestion and hypnosis.”

Again by 1954, Morse Allen was pushing hard to have operational tests of the thesis that you could construct a multiple personality and have that personality commit crimes, come back, and have no knowledge in the host that that act had been committed. In other words, The Manchurian Candidate scenario had been worked out by the CIA five years before the novel was published.

But would it work? In order to know whether it worked, you had to conduct what Morse Allen called “terminal experiments”. These were experiments that could result in the death of the subject. The CIA gave clearance for those experiments to be done and in reference to one researcher who was asked if he would participate in them, he said, “if you set up terminal experiments, I will do them for free.” By 1954, the literature demonstrates that Morse Allen’s concerns had reached the higher levels of the CIA and that they were willing to engage in a field test for the Manchurian Candidate type scenario. By January, 1954, an ARTICHOKE memo says, “Could an individual of a certain descent be made to perform an act of attempted assassination involuntarily under the influence of ARTICHOKE?” Then later in the memo it says, as a trigger mechanism for an even bigger project, the CIA proposed that, “an individual of a certain descent, approximately 35 years old, well educated, proficient in English, and well established socially and politically in a foreign government be induced under ARTICHOKE to perform an act involuntarily of attempted assassination against a prominent foreign politician or if necessary, against an American official.”

It was clear then, by summer of 1954, that the ARTICHOKE team said we can create an artificial personality, program that personality to conduct an assassinatiion, that assassination would occur. If in fact the individual was captured, he would never reveal the knowledge that he had engaged in the assassination, the host would know nothing about the alter, the amnesia would be impenetrable, and even under torture the host would not reveal the secrets. CIA research in many universities around the country explored topics such as programming people by way of telephone, whether somebody could answer a telephone, a secret word would be given, they would slip automatically into a trance, nobody around them would know they were in trance, they wouldn’t know they were in trance, so forth. Experiments on pain, experiments on creating unconscious recorders, experiments were done on whether people would commit suicide under hypnotic instructions, and so on. Albert Mole had written one hundred years ago that it would be possible to give people hypnotic instructions to have them commit suicide. These were the subjects of CIA experiments. What ultimately happened, we don’t know because the government files closed up at the point of reporting on the assassination attempts. But a year later, in May, 1955, a top secret report called “Hypnotism and Covert Operations begins with the following paragraph:

“Frankly I now mistrust much of was written by academic experts on hypnotism, partly because this is because many of them seem to have generalized from a very few cases, and partly because much of their cautious pessimism is contradicted by Agency experimenters. But more particularly because I have personally witnessed behavior responses which experts have said are impossible to obtain.” By l954, the Manchurian Candidate scenario had already been thought of and was already under operational testing.

This is Richard Condon who wrote The Manchurian Candidate, as Walter Bowart discovered when he wrote him, he had no idea he was writing fact. He thought he was writing fiction. The only case that has come out of the literature that suggests that someone may have been an experimental subject is the control of Candy Jones. Candy was quite a beautiful woman, second only to Betty Grable. She was a pin-up girl during WWII, but her artificial personality, Arlene Grant, was programmed by the CIA according to the book to be a hypnotic courier and she was sent around the world, and occasiionally captured and tortured. Her last instruction was to have a two week vacation in Berlin and then jump off a cliff. It did not happen because her husband, John Neville, who was a very famous all night disc jockey in New York and an amateur hypnotist, shortly after they were married began to feel he had actually married two different women and could not account for the mood swings and the differences in personality. Using hypnosis with her, this story unravelled. Candy was sent to Herb Speigel for evaluation. Herb did a work-up on her using the hypnotic induction profile and other tests, and found she was very very high in the positive. And while he couldn’t conclude that what she was saying was true, he could conclude that it would be true with her if it were true. In other words, she was the kind of person that this manipulation would have worked with. The Candy Jones story, which we cannot validate and we cannot invalidate … I have seen a CIA file marked “Grant”, but I have not been able to get the contents. It may be true, it may not be true. But the story about hypnotically programming couriers and assassins clearly is true. That book was published before the CIA documents were made available.

All of this of course violates the Nuremburg Standards but those Standards have had no application in covert activities. We found a document from the Attorney General of the United States to the Director of Central Intelligence which said ‘… if any of your agents are caught during their work, they will not be prosecuted for crimes’ and therefore there is essentially the 007 license to kill that CIA agents will not be prosecuted for their crimes, therefore Nuremburg Standards do not apply.

It wasn’t until the Nelson Rockefeller Report to the President in June, 1975 that we had any inkling about this material and then basically just a paragraph or maybe even a sentence mentioning mind and behavior control sent researchers looking for the files. In his testimony before Congress Stansfield Turner corroborated the existence of the mind control programs.

Some people wrote about them at the time. Peter Watson’s book (from England) “The Military Uses and Abuses of Psychology” touch on but do not give in any detail the experiments done by the CIA and Army, but do talk in general about the use of psychology for military purposes. The classic works are of course, Walter Bowart’s book, “Operation Mind Control” which is hard to find, and a collector’s item, an extremely important book. John Marks’ book, “The Search for the Manchurian Candidate”, and my book, “The Mind Manipulators” — these were the only three books to appear on the subject of mind and behavior control by the CIA and the Army experimental programs.

I want to move the story forward some more, from the CIA experiments in the 1950’s into the 1960’s and beyond. The 1960’s brought us a new variation in operational utilization of the techniques of brainwashing and sensory deprivation and so forth that had been explored in the 1940’s and especially in the 1950’s, and this is the religious cult issue. This is Steve Hassam’s book, “Combatting Cult Mind Control” – there is a revised edition available for sale, probably the best of the deprogramming books on mind control. But it was in the 1960’s that the idea of using these techniques on essentially freestanding populations was experimented with and the cults provide the laboratory setting for social influence processes where the people are not taken into complete physical custody. The cults themselves represent, I think, the step from the laboratory experiments into real world operational use and then beyond them, there are books like “Mindbending on Cult Deprogramming”. Then we move into the books on satanism and programming. This one I think is available for sale … “Satan’s Children”, linking the multiple personalities with satanism. Can we prove this? Where do we stand with our knowledge of satanism?

Speaking as a lawyer, it’s going to be very rough going to prove a widespread, intergenerational network of satanic cults in court. Part of the reason for that is the report issued, “In Pursuit of Satan”, by Ken Lanning FBI, who has concluded that though instances of satanic abuse do exist, there is no evidence to suport intergenerational, widespread, multinational networks of satanic abuse. Also, within the next two months, the most major study in the country on this issue will reach the same conclusions as Ken Lanning. And that report is due in about two months. But the tentative conclusion which will be the final conclusion, will be that Lanning’s perception is correct. That the evidence does not exist for intergenerational satanic cults. Now, the methodology can be challenged, in any event the question of whether therapists who work with people who claim to be abused in satanic cults should be sued, is a separate issue from what can be proven.

Is it reasonable for you to believe that widespread satanic abuse occurs? The answer to that I think, is yes. Despite the Lanning Report and despite the conclusion that will come out later on, it is your job to believe your patients, at least within the therapy setting, and if they say it happened, then you work effectively with them by believing that it happened. It’s when there is a real world corollary that the trouble begins. I am using my lawyer hat now. Do not tell your patients to go out and sue their parents or sue other people. Do not tell them to give newspaper accounts and so on, and to protect yourself in your clinical notes, say that this is the story your patient told, you have no way of knowing whether it is true or not, in any event, that’s not your function. Your function is to make the person whole with whatever material they present to you. As long as you do not advise that they do not go out and sue other people, you can advise them to seek legal help if they say, “should I sue?” You say, “that’s not my job, I am not a lawyer … you should go to a lawyer and see what the lawyer thinks … I will support you in this session whatever you decide to do … but what you decide to do in the outside world is a decision that must be made by you and other professionals, not by me.” As long as you do that, there should be no legal liability. If your patient sues you for believing all the crap that you are being told, in your notes somewhere should be “it’s not my job to evaluate the historical validity of this information, but I will work with it as if it is true, because for my client at this point in time it is true.” That should protect you.

There are isolated instances, there is also a large accumulation of information from local police departments who are not as influencable as the FBI – the FBI did deny the existence of the Mafia – when I went to an FBI friend of mine who oversees the Behavioral Science program there – I said why does the FBI deny the existence of widespread satanism – he looked at me and said they also denied the existence of the Mafia. Their conclusions can be rebutted in court by a lot of data from local police that have found ritualistic killings. The book “Mortal Remains” is an illustration of a case in Massachusetts where the borns were found where a satanic cult was practicing ritual murder. There are instances in which it can be proven. The existence of satanism is provable for over many centuries and the existence of cults and mind control programming is provable beyond question. For therapists to believe that there are some cults that are satanic is true, to believe that those satanic cults may be more widespread than we think or thought beforehand is reasonable, to believe that they engage in a bunch of horrendous practices – look what the Nazi experimenters did and look what Ewen Cameron did and how can you say there is a limit on human depravity? It is not unreasonable to believe that these kinds of things can occur, and in any event, when you work with trauma, you work more effectively by believing the story that it has come from.

Let’s go further. In breaking bodies and minds, the role of psychiatric abuse and mental health professionals in creating torture victims and mind control victims is discussed – the complicity between torturers and professionals who help them to torture has been documented – this is the Irving Janus report from 1949 that validated the use of hypnosis as part of conditioning techniques being used by the Soviets; Rand report in 1958 again reaches the same conclusions; the involvement of hypnosis and other forms of programming – the book “Why Men Confess” is written by a former Assistant Attorney General of the United States, traces modern mind control back to the Malleus Maleficorum through the Moscow Show Trials and other places. It’s a good legitimate source for understanding the modern “False Memory” stuff which I will get to right now.

There has been only one completely litigated case involving false memory. Can you implant false memories? Of course. We knew that 100 years ago. We have come a long way since then as you can see in this talk. This is Eileen Franklin and her daughter – this case is the only criminal case that has gone to trial in which repressed memory played a major role. She claimed that her father killed her friend, Susan Nasen. The story that Eileen Franklin tells us, that she was looking into her daughter’s eyes one day and suddenly the image of watching her father kill her friend Susan (when Susan was 8 years old twenty years earlier) came into her mind, and then the memories started to flood back about that experience. {This is her father when he was arrested. Take a good look at him. Here is at trial on the right.} You learn a lesson about lawyering. That’s his lawyer on the left. You clean up the client. You don’t bring him into court looking like that … you bring him in looking like that – on the right. You can introduce pictures but it is not as powerful as the present appearance.

The Franklin case is a very troubling one, and we have to be very honest about that because we are first and foremost scientists, and unlike the False Memory, do not need to have a political agenda here. Eileen Franklin is a liar. She told four different stories about the genesis of her memory one of which was that she was hypnotized in therapy. If that story were true, she would have been disqualified as a witness in California courts. When she learned that, or we hypothesize that when she learned that, she went back to her brother and said I told you I had been hypnotized. Forget that. That’s tampering with evidence. She told actually four different stories about how she recovered her memories, and that’s grounds to disbelieve her because there is clear evidence of lying in the way she presented herself. On the other hand the fact that she is a liar does not mean that the story she told is false. The False Memory make that assumption but that’s bad logic. They may be right that she’s a liar and her story is false, but you cannot make that jump as a logical matter. On the other hand her father is … my first real knowledge of the case came from a cab ride with Beth Loftus on my left and David Spiegel on my right in Chicago when Beth and I were both plenary speakers at the ISSMPD in Chicago a few years back. Both of them had just come from testifying in the case, both of them testified against Eileen Franklin and each of them in the cab in my presence concluded that if her story were true, and it might be true, it would have been true of this man. This man physically abused his son and sexually molested his daughters. He had a violent past. It is well documented. When he was arrested he had a large collection of child pornography. He had an active correspondence to have sexual relations with their seven and eight year old daughters. He had pictures of those activities involving him.

Her memories may be true, and they may not be true. He is the kind of person it would be true of. It was independent physical corroboration of his pedophilia, of his violence, and the fact that this is the kind of man who would have committed that sadistic molesting and murder. It is the up to the jury then to decide if that evidence is enough. But her repressed memory was not the only basis of the testimony. The defence argued that everything she remembered was available in a newspaper somewhere. She had no independent memory of anything apart from what was in a newspaper somewhere and that point was made to the jury. The jury convicted, and Franklin, the father, is now in jail for life. The California courts have rejected his appeal and his lawyers have filed a motion in federal district court. They have imported Richard Ofshe, a specialist in social influence to work over the mother who testified against her husband in the trial and she has now changed her mind. Of course, this is not an unusual phenomenon. Now that he is in jail and she can have recriminations she might have changed her mind anyway, but the introduction of a social influence specialist with a political agenda to spend a lot of time with her to reach the certain conclusion, seems to me if there is a new trial is a point that will be raised at that new trial.

What I found very interesting is I interviewed the prosecutor, his lawyer, and his appellate lawyer and in their brief on appeal, the appellate lawyers wrote that … no responsible person would believe that the concept of robust repression was false … in other words the Ofshe/ Singer hypothesis that you cannot forget traumatic events over a sustained period of time and that it is the “scientific quackery of the twentieth century” is, in the opinion of these lawyers, irresponsible thinking, and I agree. The evidence shows that the Ofshe/Singer hypothesis is wrong. The evidence comes from biological studies of memory and how the brain processes traumatic memories differently than ordinary memories and it also explains how Loftus’ research on normal memory is irrelevant to the issue of traumatic memory, a point which she is now reluctantly starting to recognize.

Is Eileen Franklin on trial? Is Freud dead? If you knock out the notion of robust repression as the False Memory people have been trying to do, you have a very simplistic idea. If a person can be repeatedly traumatized as a child, have no adult recollection of that trauma, go into therapy and then have a recollection, then the therapist must have implanted it if robust repression is not real … So the existence of robust repression as the underpinning of the scientific foundation for the False Memory argument is quite crucial, but that argument is now shown to be scientifically invalid which doesn’t mean that the False Memory position is wrong. They are right about what therapists should be doing and shouldn’t be doing – on the issues of social influence procedures – but they are wrong about the robust repression. That means that somebody can go to a therapist and have that memory refreshed and that memory can be true

And then memory can be true. Which makes it a harder case, the world is no longer black and white. You cannot use the iatrogenic cause argument in every case of robust repression. The Father Porter cases are an illustration of robust repression, memories that were recovered without hypnotic intervention and in the absence of a therapeutic encounter. You may know the Father Porter story. My time is short, so I can’t go through it with you now. In any event he recovered the memories of having been molested. He was able to validate those memories as to himself and Father Porter is now in jail having confessed to having molested between 50 and 100 young boys and girls. In the search for the unravelling of the human mind, mind control is real. It has a rich history. I have only given you a fraction of the history. We haven’t touched on the physiological or pharmacological aspects. We haven’t talked about behavior modification and conditioning techniques, and so forth, we have just concentrated on the issues that are closer to the work that you will be doing. We haven’t talked about social influence theories in general, but the existence of mind control its work in secret laboratories, its work in CIA and Army experiments, its spilling over into religious cult settings, and its use in freestanding populations are all validated and that ought to give mind control the kind of respectability it deserves, and give you the background to believe the kinds of stories that your patients are telling you as at least possible. Thank you.

You have been listening to a lecture by Dr. Alan Scheflin, “The History of Mind Control: What we can prove, and what we can’t”. CKLN 88.1 on this series on Mind Control. Next week we are going to be featuring an interview with Claudia Mullen, Valerie Wolf and Chris Ebner the day that they had given the mind control testimony to the President’s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments in March 1995. If you have missed any of the shows, stay tuned for this message and find out how you can remedy that. CKLN is rebroadcasting a ground-breaking radio series, Mind Control in Canada, currently airing on the Sunday morning show, The International Connection. Starting June 2nd on alternative radion, Monday nights from l0pm to llpm, the eight month radio series, Mind Control in Canada, will be aired. This series looks into the Canadian and U.S. government history of mind control experimentation, and particularly the experiments done to children in creating programmed multiple personalities by means of severe trauma and abuse. If allegations of the survivors are true, and what government documentation would point to, the leaders, intelligence agencies and militaries of North America have been using mind control for political, military and criminal purposes for decades. To hear interviews and lectures with survivors, researchers and therapists on this important topic, tune into CKLN 88.1 FM Monday evenings 10pm to 11pm for re-broadcasts or Sunday mornings, 9.30am to 10.30am for the breaking story on mind control.



IBM Computer Program to Take on ‘Jeopardy!’ (NY Times 27/4/10)

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 16/06/2010

This highly successful television quiz show is the latest challenge for artificial intelligence.

What is “Jeopardy”?

That is correct.

I.B.M. plans to announce Monday that it is in the final stages of completing a computer program to compete against human “Jeopardy!” contestants. If the program beats the humans, the field of artificial intelligence will have made a leap forward.

I.B.M. scientists previously devised a chess-playing program to run on a supercomputer called Deep Blue. That program beat the world champion Garry Kasparov in a controversial 1997 match (Mr. Kasparov called the match unfair and secured a draw in a later one against another version of the program).

But chess is a game of limits, with pieces that have clearly defined powers. “Jeopardy!” requires a program with the suppleness to weigh an almost infinite range of relationships and to make subtle comparisons and interpretations. The software must interact with humans on their own terms, and fast.

Indeed, the creators of the system — which the company refers to as Watson, after the I.B.M. founder, Thomas J. Watson Sr. — said they were not yet confident their system would be able to compete successfully on the show, on which human champions typically provide correct responses 85 percent of the time.

“The big goal is to get computers to be able to converse in human terms,” said the team leader, David A. Ferrucci, an I.B.M. artificial intelligence researcher. “And we’re not there yet.”

The team is aiming not at a true thinking machine but at a new class of software that can “understand” human questions and respond to them correctly. Such a program would have enormous economic implications.

Despite more than four decades of experimentation in artificial intelligence, scientists have made only modest progress until now toward building machines that can understand language and interact with humans.

The proposed contest is an effort by I.B.M. to prove that its researchers can make significant technical progress by picking “grand challenges” like its early chess foray. The new bid is based on three years of work by a team that has grown to 20 experts in fields like natural language processing, machine learning and information retrieval.

Under the rules of the match that the company has negotiated with the “Jeopardy!” producers, the computer will not have to emulate all human qualities. It will receive questions as electronic text. The human contestants will both see the text of each question and hear it spoken by the show’s host, Alex Trebek.

The computer will respond with a synthesized voice to answer questions and to choose follow-up categories. I.B.M. researchers said they planned to move a Blue Gene supercomputer to Los Angeles for the contest. To approximate the dimensions of the challenge faced by the human contestants, the computer will not be connected to the Internet, but will make its answers based on text that it has “read,” or processed and indexed, before the show.

There is some skepticism among researchers in the field about the effort. “To me it seems more like a demonstration than a grand challenge,” said Peter Norvig, a computer scientist who is director of research at Google. “This will explore lots of different capabilities, but it won’t change the way the field works.”

The I.B.M. researchers and “Jeopardy!” producers said they were considering what form their cybercontestant would take and what gender it would assume. One possibility would be to use an animated avatar that would appear on a computer display.

“We’ve only begun to talk about it,” said Harry Friedman, the executive producer of “Jeopardy!” “We all agree that it shouldn’t look like Robby the Robot.”

Mr. Friedman added that they were also thinking about whom the human contestants should be and were considering inviting Ken Jennings, the “Jeopardy!” contestant who won 74 consecutive times and collected $2.52 million in 2004.

I.B.M. will not reveal precisely how large the system’s internal database would be. The actual amount of information could be a significant fraction of the Web now indexed by Google, but artificial intelligence researchers said that having access to more information would not be the most significant key to improving the system’s performance.

Eric Nyberg, a computer scientist at Carnegie Mellon University, is collaborating with I.B.M. on research to devise computing systems capable of answering questions that are not limited to specific topics. The real difficulty, Dr. Nyberg said, is not searching a database but getting the computer to understand what it should be searching for.

The system must be able to deal with analogies, puns, double entendres and relationships like size and location, all at lightning speed.

In a demonstration match here at the I.B.M. laboratory against two researchers recently, Watson appeared to be both aggressive and competent, but also made the occasional puzzling blunder.

For example, given the statement, “Bordered by Syria and Israel, this small country is only 135 miles long and 35 miles wide,” Watson beat its human competitors by quickly answering, “What is Lebanon?”

Moments later, however, the program stumbled when it decided it had high confidence that a “sheet” was a fruit.

The way to deal with such problems, Dr. Ferrucci said, is to improve the program’s ability to understand the way “Jeopardy!” clues are offered. The complexity of the challenge is underscored by the subtlety involved in capturing the exact meaning of a spoken sentence. For example, the sentence “I never said she stole my money” can have seven different meanings depending on which word is stressed.

“We love those sentences,” Dr. Nyberg said. “Those are the ones we talk about when we’re sitting around having beers after work.”

USPTO 6052336: Apparatus and Method of Broadcasting Audible Sound using Ultrasonic Sound as a Carrier

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 15/06/2010

Lowrey A. Patent # 6052336 “Apparatus and method of broadcasting audible sound using ultrasonic sound as a carrier” USPTO granted 4/18/00

2. Description of the Related Art

Over the past few years, several situations have arisen in military and civil areas where crowds, with or without leaders, have posed a serious problem to Government forces.

For example, in Somalia, leader General Aideed would almost never remain outside unless surrounded by a crowd of sympathizers. Troops attempting to seize or capture the leader would have to engage the crowd, probably killing or injuring some, in order to get close enough to capture him. Hence, forces were not likely to attempt to capture the leader.

Another example is the U.S. invasion of Haiti, where a ship with troops was sent to perform various actions that would have been helpful to the population living there. The landing of these troops was, however, opposed by a crowd on the dock. Hence, in order to land, the crowd on the dock must first be disposed of. Again, crowd members would likely be hurt, resulting in the troops deciding not to act.

Still another example is any situation where an angry crowd gathers. In this situation, the crowd frequently turns to looting and destruction of property. It is a constant challenge for, for example, police to disperse such a crowd without causing casualties, perhaps fatal ones.

All of these examples have a common theme, namely a crowd or leader that one would like to influence such that they leave or stop their hostile activities.



The use of sound controlling groups or crowds in both civil and military situations was considered at least as far back as World War II. Psychological studies on sounds that produce an aversive effect, or a pleasant effect, have been reported since the early decades of this century. Work in the nineteenth century by Helmholtz and Lord Rayleigh (detailed below) show an understanding of the effect that combination tones, or beats, with low frequencies (less than about one hundred Hertz) have on the pleasant or unpleasant quality of a sound.

Crowds can largely be divided into two kinds; those with leaders, and those without. A crowd with a leader can be affected either by limiting the communication between the leader and the crowd, or by directly affecting the crowd. A crowd without a leader (such as a looting mob) can only be affected by something that influences everyone in the crowd. Thus, it is necessary to develop physical methods to either impair communication, or to produce a physical or psychological effect in all persons exposed to the system.

Some of the methods suggested for affecting an entire crowd involve very high intensity sound (120 dB or more above the standard level of 2.times.10.sup.-5 N/m.sup.2). Sirens or very low frequency vibrations (less than 100 Hertz) are frequently spoken of.

Studies indicate several classes of sound to be of interest in crowd control. One class of sounds includes those which are aversive in themselves. Examples of these are: (1) scraping noises, such as that of chalk on a blackboard, (2) the crying of a baby, and (3) screams of pain. These sounds almost involuntarily cause a person to avert his/her attention from what he/she is doing, at least momentarily. Repeated exposure to this class of sounds, if the occurrence is not predictable, tends to produce jumpiness and sometimes leads to irrational behavior.

Secondly, there are a class of sounds which will cause a person to be startled and divert his/her attention from the task that he/she is doing because they indicate a possible imminent danger to him/her. Examples are: (1) gunfire, and (2) automobile crash noises.

Both of these classes of sound will likely produce a “startle” reaction in a crowd the first time that they are used. If the crowd, however, identifies the source as, for example, a loudspeaker, they will likely adapt to and ignore the noise. If the crowd mills around for a longer time, the sounds could cause headaches and other symptoms of stress. The crowd may disperse, but this is not at all certain.

If, on the other hand, one is trying to stop a fleeing person, a sudden noise, such as the screech of brakes, would undoubtedly cause the person to be startled and try to see whether the noise indicated impeding danger to him/her. He/She will clearly be disoriented for a few seconds, although the average time will vary from person to person. The sound of a gunshot may, for example, cause the same effect, or it may simply cause the person to run faster or run in a weaving manner.

A third class of sound includes low frequency vibrations either slightly above or below 20 Hertz; the lower audible limit. Vibrations in this frequency range produce several effects on a person’s body.

Resonances of several internal organs lie in this frequency range. It has been shown that exposure to vibrations at an organ resonance cause nausea and a general feeling of malaise. Vibrational amplitudes that are too high will cause physical damage to the organs, whereas vibrations at a constant frequency or starting very low an rising through the range appear to cause a feeling of unease and tend to increase the suggestibility of a crowd.

The effects on a person’s mood appear to be caused by hitting frequencies close to the alpha frequency of the brain waves. A phenomenon called “entrainment” occurs when the brain is stimulated at frequencies close to 10 Hz. This means that the brain’s natural frequency is pulled close to, and sometime equal to, the stimulating frequency. A normal brain displays a prominent “alpha” pattern (8 to 12 Hz) at a time of relaxed alertness. Tense alertness, such as caused by freeway driving, leads to a “beta” pattern with a frequency of 13 Hz or higher. A relaxed, dreamlike state causes a “theta” pattern of frequencies from 4 to 8 Hz.

Other experiments, such as the ones cited by Norbert Wiener in “Nonlinear Problems in Random Theory”, found that “a decidedly unpleasant sensation” was produced by stimulating the brain at “about 10 Hz.” In fact, Helmholtz argues that beats of frequency less than 40 Hz are not perceivable as tones, but rather create a jarring feeling and are responsible for the unpleasant sensation of dissonant combinations of notes in music. As the low notes of the organ are in the range of 30 Hz, it would seem that tones ranging in frequency from about 12 to 40 Hz will produce an unpleasant feeling, or suggestibility. These tones are probably useful in crowd control used either by themselves, or to induce a mood that could then be triggered by another sound.

In producing low frequency vibrations with a conventional loudspeaker, several problems arise. First, at frequencies as low as this, loudspeakers are not very efficient in producing sound. The speaker will have to be quite large. Second, there is very little directivity possible with frequencies this low. Directive arrays would be huge, making it almost impossible to define an area where the effect occurs or to draw a line in the sand where individuals start feeling the effect when they cross it. Finally, the signal would be strongest at the speakers, requiring protective gear for at least the operators, and probably for all of the crowd control personnel.

Methods to impede communication between a speaker and a crowd have also been examined. One of the most interesting is techniques includes playing back to a speaker his/her own voice with a slight delay (less than a second). The speaker stutters and trips on his/her words unless he/she slows down his/her rate of delivery a great deal.

If two moderately loud audible tones of different frequency are received by the ear simultaneously, then, in addition to the two original tones, somewhat weaker tones with frequencies given by the sum and the difference of the original frequencies can be heard. This is called the Beat Frequency phenomenon when the two frequencies are close together, and the Combination Tone phenomenon when they are not. The combination tones are caused by a non-linear response by the ear to somewhat loud sounds. The details of the production of these tones are discussed in more detail herein below.

It is important, and in fact one of the critical physical principles in this invention, that an audible combination tone can be heard even when the two original tones are ultrasonic so that their frequencies lie above 20,000 Hz, the upper limit of audibility. In this case, the combination tone corresponds to the difference of the two original frequencies and is audible if it lies in the 20-20,000 Hz range of audibility.

The present invention shows ways in which, by altering the frequency and amplitude of one of the ultrasonic tones, the difference tone can be made to be a single tone (possibly of very low frequency), a scream or shot, or a voice.

More detailed discussions will be deferred until the “Technical Description” hereinbelow. We will discuss a way of causing a targeted person (or group) to hear whatever pattern of sound, be it speech or anything else, that we wish.

A combination tone is produced in the heads of all individuals exposed to both ultrasonic tones. If you are exposed to only one, you hear nothing, Additionally, these individuals are unable to detect the source of the sound.

Effects of the System

The primary psychological difference between this system and other proposed systems using sound for crowd control is the property creating the sound within the head of the target individual. The effect on a person who suddenly starts to hear sounds with no apparent source is not known.

Since most cultures attribute inner voices either as signs of madness, or as messages from spirits or demons, both of which will invoke powerful emotional reactions, it is expected that the use of a voice will have an immediate intense effect.

Another effect is the low (less than 100 Hz) frequency sound. There are several reasons for this. First, these low frequency sounds will have a higher amplitude, in general, than the voice frequency sounds. Second, sounds at these low frequencies have been shown to increase the suggestiveness or apprehensiveness of exposed persons.

A system using a barrier array so that a person would feel more and more apprehensive as he/she moved in a given direction, and less if he/she turned around and went out. This may require a “trigger”, such as a soft voice suggesting that it is dangerous and one should go back might work, in addition to the low frequency sound.

In addition, interference with the brain’s alpha rhythm of a targeted individual or group may be achieved. This may cause temporary incapacitation, intense feelings of discomfort which would cause immediate dispersal of the crowd, or departure of the targeted leader.

Other sound patterns are possible, either alone or in combination. Sounds such as random shots, or screams may be very effective when combined with low frequency sounds producing apprehensiveness.

A leader could be singled out by using highly focused beams projected from one projector system 60, that target only the head region of a single person. The sound patterns described above could be used, or one could use the speaker’s own voice, with an appropriate delay. The pattern selected would depend on whether it is desired to disrupt the speaker or his speaking ability.

Return to the Situations Described in the Background Section

Whether to use two projector system 10 or one projector system 60 depends on the applicable situation. For example, in the “Somalia” situation, the best effect could probably be achieved by using projector system 10, wherein one projector focused on the individual and another broad beam device targeting the crowd. A frequency near the alpha frequency would be directed at the individual to disorient him/her and perhaps make him/her collapse.

The crowd could be handled in a different way, for example, with sounds that induce apprehensiveness, without disabling. Ideally, the crowd would disperse, leaving the leader to be apprehended. In fact, certain characteristic sounds may be known to a particular culture that indicate that a person has a dreaded disease, such as the plague. This, together with sounds causing general apprehensiveness, might work.

The crowd on a dock described in the Haiti example, would be handled in roughly the same way. Sounds causing general discomfort would be mixed with other, for example, culturally specific sounds that would incite fear and discomfort. The intensity of the sounds could be increased for a while, then followed by a scream, or some related noise. Since the source of the sounds is not readily obvious, there will probably be general panic and fleeing.

An ultrasonic device may also be used to control looting crowds, instead of the more harmful tear gas after hard to control crowds. Additionally, the difficult task of removing residual tear gas is eliminated. An ultrasonic device would be used to control the crowd by exposing them to disorienting sounds, and sounds inducing fear.


Loos HG Patent # 6017302 “Subliminal Acoustic Manipulation of Nervous System” USPTO granted 1/25/00

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 06/06/2010

United States Patent     6,017,302
Loos     January 25, 2000
Subliminal acoustic manipulation of nervous systems


In human subjects, sensory resonances can be excited by subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses that are tuned to the resonance frequency. The 1/2 Hz sensory resonance affects the autonomic nervous system and may cause relaxation, drowsiness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near 1/2 Hz used. The effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include slowing of certain cortical processes, sleepiness, and disorientation. For these effects to occur, the acoustic intensity must lie in a certain deeply subliminal range. Suitable apparatus consists of a portable battery-powered source of weak subaudio acoustic radiation. The method and apparatus can be used by the general public as an aid to relaxation, sleep, or sexual arousal, and clinically for the control and perhaps treatment of insomnia, tremors, epileptic seizures, and anxiety disorders. There is further application as a nonlethal weapon that can be used in law enforcement standoff situations, for causing drowsiness and disorientation in targeted subjects. It is then preferable to use venting acoustic monopoles in the form of a device that inhales and exhales air with subaudio frequency.
Inventors:     Loos; Hendricus G. (Laguna Beach, CA)
Appl. No.:     08/961,907
Filed:     October 31, 1997
Current U.S. Class:     600/28
Current International Class:     A61B 5/00 (20060101); G10K 7/00 (20060101); A61B 005/00 ()
Field of Search:     600/26-28 128/897,898
References Cited [Referenced By] U.S. Patent Documents

4124022     November 1978     Gross
4335710     June 1982     Williamson
4573449     March 1986     Warnke
5076281     December 1991     Gavish
5123899     June 1992     Gall
5309411     May 1994     Huang et al.
5733240     March 1998     De Visser

Primary Examiner: Gilbert; Samuel

I claim:

1. Apparatus for manipulating the nervous system of a subject, the subject having an ear, comprising:

generator means for generating voltage pulses;

induction means, connected to the generator means and responsive to the voltage pulses, for inducing at the ear subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses with a pulse frequency less than 15 Hz.

2. The apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising means for automatically controlling the voltage pulses.

3. The apparatus according to claim 1, further comprising means for monitoring the voltage pulses.

4. The apparatus according to claim 1, for exciting in the subject a sensory resonance that occurs at a resonance frequency less than 15 Hz, the apparatus further comprising tuning means for enabling a user to tune the pulse frequency to the resonance frequency.

5. The apparatus according to claim 4, further including a casing for containing the generator means, the induction means and the tuning means.

6. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said induction means comprise:

means for generating in the atmosphere a gas jet, the latter having a momentum flux; and

modulation means, connected to the generator means and responsive to said voltage pulses, for pulsing the momentum flux with a frequency less than 15 Hz;

whereby subaudio acoustic pulses are induced in the atmosphere.

7. Apparatus for manipulating the nervous system of a subject, the subject having an ear, comprising:

generator means for generating voltage pulses;

a source of gas at a pressure different from the ambient atmospheric pressure;

a conduit having an orifice open to the atmosphere for passing a gaseous flux;

valve means, connected to the source of gas and the conduit to control the gaseous flux;

means, connected to the generator means and responsive to said voltage pulses, for operating the valve means to provide an oscillation of the gaseous flux with a frequency less than 15 Hz.

8. The apparatus according to claim 7, further comprising vessel means for smoothing fluctuations of the gaseous flux caused by fluctuations in the pressure of the source of gas.

9. A method for manipulating the nervous system of a subject, the subject having an ear, comprising the steps of:

generating voltage pulses; and

inducing, in a manner responsive to the voltage pulses, at the ear subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses with a pulse frequency less than 15 Hz.

10. The method according to claim 9, for exciting in the subject a sensory resonance that occurs at a resonance frequency less than 15 Hz, further comprising the step of tuning the pulse frequency to the resonance frequency.

11. The method according to claim 9, wherein said inducing comprises the steps of:

generating in the atmosphere a gas jet, the latter having a momentum flux; and

modulating the momentum flux in pulse-wise fashion in a manner responsive to the voltage pulses.

12. The method according to claim 11, further comprising the step of directing the gas jet at a material surface.

13. The method according to claim 9, wherein said inducing comprises the steps of:

generating a gas flow through a conduit orifice that is open to the atmosphere; and

modulating the gas flow to produce flow pulsations, in a manner responsive to the voltage pulses.

14. A method for remotely manipulating the nervous system of a subject in the course of law enforcement in a standoff situation, the subject having an ear, comprising the steps of:

generating voltage pulses;

generating, in a manner responsive to the voltage pulses, atmospheric acoustic signals at a plurality of locations remote from the subject for inducing at the ear subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses with a pulse frequency less than 15 Hz, the signals having phase differences with respect to each other arranged to cause constructive acoustic wave interference at the subject.

15. A method for exciting in a subject a sensory resonance having a resonance frequency less than 15 Hz, the subject having an ear, comprising the steps of:

generating voltage pulses;

inducing, in a manner responsive to the voltage pulses, at the ear subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses with a pulse frequency less than 15 Hz;

tuning the pulse frequency to the resonance frequency; and also

inducing audible audio-frequency atmospheric acoustic signals at the ear.

16. A method for controlling in a subject neurological disorders that involve pathological oscillatory activity of neural circuits, the subject having an ear, comprising the steps of:

generating voltage pulses;

inducing, in a manner responsive to the voltage pulses, at the ear subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses with a pulse frequency less than 15 Hz; and

arranging said pulse frequency to detune the pathological oscillatory activity.

17. A method for controlling in a subject epileptic seizures, the subject having an ear, comprising the steps of:

generating voltage pulses;

inducing in a manner responsive to the voltage pulses, at the ear subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses with a pulse frequency less than 15 Hz; and

initiating said inducing when a seizure precursor is felt by the subject.


The central nervous system can be manipulated via sensory pathways. Of interest here is a resonance method wherein periodic sensory stimulation evokes a physiological response that peaks at certain stimulus frequencies. This occurs for instance when rocking a baby, which typically provides relaxation at frequencies near 1/2 Hz. The peaking of the physiological response versus frequency suggests that one is dealing here with a resonance mechanism, wherein the periodic sensory signals evoke an excitation of oscillatory modes in certain neural circuits. The sensory pathway involved in the rocking example is the vestibular nerve. However, a similar relaxing response at much the same frequencies can be obtained by gently stroking a child’s hair, or by administering weak heat pulses to the skin, as discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,800,481, Sep. 1, 1998. These three types of stimulation involve different sensory modalities, but the similarity in responses and effective frequencies suggests that the resonant neural circuitry is the same. Apparently, the resonance can be excited either via vestibular pathways or via cutaneous sensory pathways that carry tactile or temperature information.

Near 2.5 Hz another sensory resonance has been found that can be excited by weak heat pulses induced in the skin, as discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,800,481, Sep. 1, 1998. This sensory resonance brings on a slowing of certain cortical functions, as indicated by a pronounced increase in the time needed to silently count backward from 100 to 70 with the eyes closed. The effect is sharply dependent on frequency, as shown by a response peak a mere 0.13 Hz wide. The thermally excited 2.5 Hz resonance was found to also cause sleepiness, and after long exposure, dizziness and disorientation.

Other, more obscure types of stimulation in the form of weak magnetic fields or weak external electric fields can also cause the excitation of sensory resonances, as


Experiments have shown that atmospheric acoustic stimulation of deeply subliminal intensity can excite in a human subject the sensory resonances near 1/2 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The 1/2 Hz resonance is characterized by ptosis of the eyelids, relaxation, drowsiness, a tonic smile, tenseness, or sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency near 1/2 Hz that is used. The observable effects of the 2.5 Hz resonance include a slowing of certain cortical functions, sleepiness, and, after long exposure, dizziness and disorientation. The finding that these sensory resonances can be excited by atmospheric acoustic signals of deeply subliminal intensity opens the way to an apparatus and method for acoustic manipulation of a subject’s nervous system, wherein weak acoustic pulses are induced in the atmosphere at the subject’s ears, and the pulse frequency is tuned to the resonance frequency of the selected sensory resonance. The method can be used by the general public for control of insomnia and anxiety, and for facilitation of relaxation and sexual arousal. Clinical use of the method includes the control and perhaps a treatment of anxiety disorders, tremors, and seizures. A suitable embodiment for these applications is a small portable battery-powered subaudio acoustic radiator which can be tuned to the resonance frequency of the selected sensory resonance.

There is an embodiment suitable for law enforcement operations in which a subject’s nervous system is manipulated from a considerable distance, as in a standoff situation. Subliminal subaudio acoustic pulses at the subject’s location may then be induced by acoustic waves radiating from a venting acoustic monopole, or by a pulsed air jet, especially when aimed at the subject or at another material surface, where the jet velocity fluctuations are wholly or partly converted into static pressure fluctuations.

The described physiological effects occur only if the intensity of the acoustic stimulation falls in a certain range, called the effective intensity window. This window has been measured in exploratory fashion for the 2.5 Hz resonance.


FIG. 1 illustrates a preferred embodiment wherein a modulated air jet is used for inducing subliminal acoustic pulses in the atmosphere at the subject’s ears, for the purpose of manipulating the subject’s nervous system.

FIG. 2 shows an embodiment in which a pulsed air jet is produced by modulating the flow from a fan by a cylindrical sheet valve that is driven by a voice coil.

FIG. 3 shows schematically an acoustic monopole operated by a solenoid valve.

FIG. 4 shows the circuit of a simple generator for producing voltage pulses that drive a piezoelectric speaker.

FIG. 5 depicts a portable battery-powered device that contains the circuit and the piezoelectric speaker of FIG. 4.

FIG. 6 shows schematically a generator for chaotic pulses.

FIG. 7 depicts a circuit for generating a complex wave.

FIG. 8 illustrates an application in a law enforcement standoff situation.

FIG. 9 contains experimental data that show excitation of the sensory resonance near 2.5 Hz, and the effective intensity window.

FIG. 10 depicts experimental data showing that the sensory excitation occurs via the ear canal.

FIG. 11 shows the buildup of the physiological response to the acoustic stimulation.

FIG. 12 shows schematically an acoustic monopole operated by a rotating valve.


It has been found in our laboratory that deeply subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses with frequency near 1/2 Hz can evoke in a human subject a nervous system response that includes ptosis of the eyelids, relaxation, drowsiness, the feeling of pressure at a centered spot on the brow, seeing moving patterns of dark purple and greenish yellow with the eyes closed, a soft warm feeling in the stomach, a tonic smile, a “knot” in the stomach, sudden loose stool, and sexual excitement, depending on the precise acoustic frequency used. These responses show that this sensory resonance involves the autonomic nervous system.

The sharp peaking of the physiological effects with frequency is suggestive of a resonance mechanism, wherein the acoustic stimulation, although subliminal, causes excitation of a resonance in certain neural circuits. Since the frequencies and responses are similar to those for the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance discussed in the Background Section, it appears that the resonance excited by the described acoustic stimulation is indeed the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance. It has been found that the 2.5 Hz sensory resonance can be excited acoustically as well. This sensory resonance causes the slowing of certain cortical processes, sleepiness, and eventually dizziness and disorientation.

One can avoid the described physiological responses by wearing snugly fitting ear plugs. This shows that the excitation occurs via the external ear canal, so that the stimulation proceeds either through the auditory nerve or the vestibular nerve. Frequencies near 1/2 Hz or 2.5 Hz are far too low for stimulating the cochlear apparatus, but they are within the response range of hair cells in the vestibular end organ. Also, there exists a low-frequency acoustic path to the vestibular end organ by virtue of the ductus reuniens which provides a fluid connection between the cochlea and the vestibular organ. The narrow duct severely attenuates acoustic signals and acts as a low pass filter with a very low cutoff frequency. Subaudio acoustic signals, i.e., acoustic signals with frequencies up to 15 Hz, may perhaps penetrate to the vestibular organ with sufficient strength for stimulating the exquisitely sensitive vestibular hair cells.

For the 1/2 Hz and 2.5 Hz resonances, the described physiological responses are observed only if the acoustic intensity lies in a certain interval, called the effective intensity window. The acoustic intensity levels in this window are far below the human auditory threshold, so that exposed subjects do not sense the acoustic pulses in any other way than through the mentioned physiological effects. The upper limit of the effective intensity window is believed to be due to nuisance-guarding neural circuitry that blocks repeditive nuisance signals from higher processing.

The acoustic signals used for the excitation of sensory resonances have the nature of pulses. The pulses may be square, trapezoid, or triangle, or rounded versions of these shapes. However, depending on the pulse frequency, strong harmonics with frequencies in the audible range could stimulate the cochlear apparatus. This may be avoided by using sine waves or appropriately rounded other waves with low harmonic content.

The acoustic pulses occur in the atmosphere air; even when administered with earphones, the pulses at the subject’s ear constitute pressure and flow pulses in the local atmospheric air.

The resonance frequencies of the 1/2 Hz and 2.5 Hz sensory resonances lie respectively near 1/2 and 2.5 Hz. The different physiological effects mentioned occur at slightly different frequencies. Thus, one can tune for drowsiness or sexual excitement, as desired. The precise resonance frequency is also expected to depend slightly on the subject and the state of the nervous and endocrine systems, but it can be measured readily by tuning the acoustic pulse frequency for maximum physiological effect. Besides the resonances near 1/2 and 2.5 Hz, other sensory resonances may perhaps be found, and those with resonance frequencies below 15 Hz are expected to be excitable acoustically via the vestibular nerve, since the vestibular hair cells are sensitive in this frequency range.

The finding that deeply subliminal subaudio acoustic stimulation can influence the central nervous system suggests a method and apparatus for manipulating the nervous system of a subject by inducing subliminal atmospheric acoustic pulses of subaudio frequency at the subject’s ears. In doing so, one may in addition exploit the sensory resonance mechanism, but there are important applications where this is not done. For example, the subliminal acoustic manipulation of the nervous system may be used clinically for the control of tremors and seizures, by detuning the pathological oscillatory activity of neural circuits that occurs in these disorders. This may be done by choosing an acoustic frequency that is slightly different from the frequency of the pathological oscillation. The evoked neural signals then cause phase shifts which may diminish or quench the oscillation. Exploitation of the resonance mechanism by tuning the acoustic signals to the resonance frequency of a selected sensory resonance affords other forms of manipulation, such as control of insomnia and anxiety, or facilitation of sexual arousal.

For both types of manipulation, the required subliminal subaudio acoustic pulses may be induced at one or both of the subject’s ears by earphones with a proper low-frequency response, acoustic waves generated by an acoustic source and propagated through the atmosphere, or by a pulsed jet of gas (which may be air), preferably directed at a material surface open to the atmosphere, such as a wall or the subject’s skin or clothing. In the area of impact, especially where the surface is oriented substantially perpendicular to the jet, atmospheric pressure pulses are then generated by virtue of the ram effect, wherein flow velocity fluctuations are wholly or partly converted into static pressure fluctuations. If the material surface on which the jet impinges includes the subject’s ears, then these pressure pulses cause direct stimulation of the subject, but the pulses also propagate through the atmosphere to the subject’s ears by virtue of acoustic wave propagation along accessible paths.

The induction of atmospheric acoustic pulses by a pulsed air jet proceeding in the atmosphere and directed at a subject is shown in FIG. 1, where a blower 1, labeled “FAN”, produces an air jet 2 that is directed at a subject 3. The fan is powered by a power supply 4, labelled “SUPPLY”. At the fan, the supply voltage is modulated in pulsed fashion by a relay 5 controlled by the generator 6, labelled “GENERATOR”, through voltage pulses 7 supplied to electromagnet windings 8. A user can adjust the frequency of the pulses with the tuning control 9. The pulsing of the voltage supplied to the fan causes the momentum flux 10 of the air jet to be modulated in a pulsed manner. Upon impinging on a material surface such as the skin of the subject 3, the pulsed jet induces acoustic pressure pulses at the ears 11 of the subject. The atmospheric acoustic effect of the jet is complicated by the fact that the region of the fan inlet undergoes a fluctuation of static pressure as the result of the modulation of jet momentum flux. There thus are two distinct acoustic monopoles, one at the fan inlet and the other in the area of impact of the jet on the material surface. The monopoles radiate with a phase difference that is determined by the jet velocity, the modulation frequency, and the distance between fan and impact area. The resulting sound pressure at the subject’s ears can be analyzed with retarded potentials as discussed for instance by Morse and Feshbach (1953). Even a jet which does not impinge on a material surface radiates by virtue of the acoustic monopole at the fan inlet.

When skin of the subject is exposed to gas flow of the jet, or to the flow of atmospheric air entrained by the jet, the flow will fluctuate in pulsed fashion, so that a periodic heat flux occurs by convective transport and evaporation of sweat. The resulting periodic fluctuation of the skin temperature can excite a sensory resonance, as discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,800,481, Sep. 1, 1998. Hence, the apparatus of FIG. 1 can cause excitation of a sensory resonance via two separate sensory pathways, viz., the vestibular nerve and the afferents from cutaneous temperature receptors. The strength of the thermal stimulation depends on the skin area and type of skin exposed to the fluctuating flow. The face is particularly sensitive, especially the lips. The two-channel excitation of sensory resonances needs further investigation. In any particular situation, the vestibular channel can be blocked by using earplugs.

An air jet with pulsed momentum flux can also be obtained as illustrated in FIG. 2. Shown is a fan 1, labelled “FAN”, which discharges into manifold 12. The air flow in the manifold can be partially obstructed by a sheet valve 13 in the form of a perforated cylindrical sheet. The sheet valve carries a voice coil 14 which is situated in the field of a permanent magnet 15, in the manner of conventional electromagnetic loudspeakers. When no current flows through the voice coil, the sheet valve is held in equilibrium position by springs 16. In this position, the perforation 17 in the sheet is lined up with the flow passage allowing essentially unimpeded flow through the manifold and out the exit 18, such as to form a jet 19 in the atmosphere. Sending a current pulse through the voice coil 14 causes the sheet valve to be displayed in the axial direction, thereby partially obstructing the air flow through the manifold. Owing to the low inertia of the sheet valve, the arrangement allows efficient pulse modulation of the jet momentum flux.

A somewhat different modulation system can be obtained with a rotating cylindrical sheet valve that has one or more holes along its periphery, and which is adjacent to a stationary cylindrical shroud that has corresponding holes, so that rotation of the valve causes modulation of the air flow through the holes. The valve is rotated by a stepper motor driven by voltage pulses. The latter are obtained from a generator that is controlled by a tuner.

One can also use direct acoustic wave propagation for inducing the required atmospheric acoustic pulses. It is then advantageous to employ as the source of the waves an acoustic monopole, since for these the acoustic pressure does not fall off as fast with increasing distance as for dipoles. Moreover, at the very low frequencies involved, acoustic pressure shorting across a conventional loudspeaker baffle is very severe. A sealed loudspeaker mounted in an airtight box eliminates this pressure shorting, and radiates acoustic waves with a relatively large monopole component.

An acoustic monopole may also be produced by having a source of pressurized gas vent through an orifice into the atmosphere in a pulsed fashion. The gas may be air. Alternatively, one may have a source of low-pressure air inhale atmospheric air through an orifice in pulsed fashion. These actions are easily achieved by an oscillating or rotating valve. For purposes of discussion it is convenient to introduce the concept of gaseous flux through the orifice, defined as the integral of the normal flow velocity component over an imagined surface that tightly caps the orifice, the normal component being perpendicular to the local surface element, and reckoned positive if the flow is directed into the ambient atmosphere. The gaseous flux has the dimension of m.sup.3 /s. For the case with a source of pressurized gas, the gaseous flux is positive and due to gas venting to the atmosphere. For the case with a source of vacuum, the gaseous flux is negative and due to atmospheric air entering the orifice. The strength of the acoustic monopole is expressed as the amplitude of the gaseous flux fluctuation, amplitude being defined as half the peak-to-peak variation. The concept of gaseous flux allows a unified discussion of venting acoustic monopoles that use a source of pressurized gas or a source of vacuum, or both.

The source of pressurized air could be a cylinder with pressurized gas, such as a CO.sub.2 cartridge. For personal use, such a cartridge may last a long time because only very small acoustic monopole strengths are needed for the induction of the required weak acoustic signals. For long term and long range operation, the exhaust port of an air pump may serve as a source of pressurized air, and the intake port could be used as a source of vacuum.

A simple venting acoustic monopole is shown in FIG. 12, where the source 63 of pressurized gas, which may be air, is connected to a conduit 69 which has an orifice 65 that is open to the atmosphere. A rotating valve 66 labelled “VALVE” controls the gaseous flux through the orifice. The valve is rotated by a stepper motor 67 labelled “MOTOR”, driven by voltage pulses from the generator 68 labelled “GENERATOR”. The motor speed is determined by the frequency of the voltage pulses. This frequency can be selected by the tuner 70, which therefore controls the frequency of the acoustic pulses emited by the orifice 65. For the simple orifice shown, boundary layer separation may occur in the outflow, so that the air pulses emerge in the form of jets. This causes dipole and higher multipole components in the radiated acoustic field. If desired, such radiation components can be avoided or diminished by placing a spherically or dome shaped fine mesh screen over the orifice 65. Instead of holding pressurized gas, the source 63 may hold a vacuum. In either case, the pulsing of the gaseous flux causes radiation of monopole-type acoustic waves. The source 63 may be replenished by a pump.

Push-pull operation can be achieved in the manner shown in FIG. 3. An air pump 20, labelled “PUMP”, with flow ports 64, pressurizes the pressure vessel 21 while drawing a vacuum in the vacuum vessel 22. A valve 23 is operated by the solenoid 24 such as to alternately admit high and low pressure air to the conduit 26. The latter vents to the atmosphere through a screen 55 placed across an orifice 27 that is open to the atmosphere. The valve is controlled by an oscillator consisting of the solenoid 24, which is connected to the pulse generator 6, labelled “GENERATOR”. The frequency of the electric current pulses through the solenoid is determined by the setting of the tuning control 9. This frequency is to be tuned to the resonance frequency of the sensory resonance that is to be excited. The tuning may be done manually by a user. The conduit 26 is structured as a diffuser in order to avoid boundary layer separation during the exhaust phase; the screen across the orifice 27 inhibits formation of a jet, thereby providing more nearly for a monopole type acoustic wave. During the intake phase the orifice acts as a sink; streamlines 28 of the resulting flow are illustrated. The vessels 21 and 22 smooth the flow fluctuations through the orifice that are due to the flow fluctuations through the pump; they are drawn at a relatively small scale for compactness sake. Instead of the oscillating valve 23, a rotating valve may be used, driven by a stepper motor powered by voltage pulses from a generator.

Conventional loudspeakers may be used as well as the source of acoustic radiation. An example is shown in FIG. 4, where the piezoelectric transducer 37 is driven by a simple battery-powered pulse generator built around two RC timers 30 and 31. Timer 30 (Intersil ICM7555, for instance) is hooked up for astable operation; it produces a square wave voltage with a frequency determined by capacitor 33 and the potentiometer 32, which serves as a tuner that may be operated by a user. The square wave voltage at output 34 drives the LED 35, and appears at one of the output terminals 36, after voltage division by potentiometer 71. The other output is connected to the negative supply. The output terminals 36 are connected to the piezoelectric speaker. Automatic shutoff of the voltage that powers the timer 30 at point 38 is provided by a second timer 31, hooked up for monostable operation. Shutoff occurs after a time interval determined by resistor 39 and capacitor 40. Timer 31 is powered by a 9 Volt battery 41, via a switch 42. Optional rounding of the square wave is done by an RC circuit consisting of a resistor 43 and capacitor 44. An optional airtight enclosure 29 may be used for the speaker 37, in order to enhance the monopole component of the radiated acoustic signal. Instead of a piezoelectric speaker one may use an electromagnetic loudspeaker with a voice coil. Because of the low impedance of the voice coil, a resistor must then be included in the output circuitry in order to keep the output currents to low values such as to allow battery powering of the device. Small voice coil currents are sufficient for the low acoustic powers required.

Low pulse frequencies can be monitored with the LED 35 of FIG. 3. The LED blinks on and off with the square wave, and it doubles as a power indicator. The pulse frequency can be determined by reading a clock and counting the LED light pulses. For higher frequencies a monitoring LED can still be used, if it is driven by a signal obtained by frequency division of the generator signal.

The automatic shutoff described above is an example for automatic control of the generated voltage; more sophisticated forms of control involve automatic frequency sequences. A computer that runs a simple timing program can be used for the generation of all sorts of square waves that can be made available at a computer port. An economic and compact version of such arrangement is provided by the Basic Stamp manufactured by Parallax Inc, Rocklin, Calif., which has an onboard EEPROM that can be programmed for the automatic control of the generated pulses, such as to provide desired on/off times, frequency schedules, or chaotic waves. The square waves can be rounded by RC circuits, and further smoothed by integration and filtering.

A compact packaging of the device such as shown of FIG. 4 is depicted in FIG. 5 where all circuit parts and the speaker, piezoelectric or voice-coil type, are contained in a small casing 62. Shown are the speaker 37, labelled “SPEAKER”, driven by the generator 6, labeled “GENERATOR”, with tuning control 9, LED 35, battery 41, and power switch 42. The LED doubles as a mark for the tuning control dial. With the circuit of FIG. 4, the device draws so little current that it can be used for several months as a sleeping aid, with a single 9 Volt battery.

For the purpose of thwarting habituation to the stimulation, irregular features may be introduced in the pulse train, such as small short-term variations of frequency of a chaotic or stochastic nature. Such chaotic or stochastic acoustic pulses can cause excitation of a sensory resonance, provided that the average pulse frequency is close to the appropriate sensory resonance frequency. A chaotic square wave can be generated simply by cross coupling of two timers. FIG. 6 shows such a hookup, where timers 72 and 73, each labeled “TIMER”, have their output pins 74 and 75 connected crosswise to each other’s control voltage pins 76 and 77, via resistors 78 and 79. The control voltage pins 76 and 75 have capacitors 80 and 81 to ground. If the timers are hooked up for astable operation with slightly different frequencies, and appropriate values are chosen for the coupling resistors and capacitors, the output of either timer is a chaotic square wave with an oval attractor. Example circuit parameters are: R.sub.78 =440K.OMEGA., R.sub.79 =700K.OMEGA., C.sub.80 =4.7 .mu.F, C.sub.81 =4.7 .mu.F, with (RC).sub.72 =0.83 s and (RC).sub.73 =1.1 s. For these parameters, the output 74 of timer 72 is a chaotic square wave with a power spectrum that has large peaks at 0.46 Hz and 0.59 Hz. The resulting chaotic wave is suitable for the excitation of the 1/2 Hz resonance.

A complex wave may be used for the joint excitation of two different sensory resonances. A simple generator of a complex wave, suitable for the joint excitation of the 1/2 Hz autonomic resonance and the 2.5 Hz cortical resonance, is shown in FIG. 7. Timers 82 and 83 are arranged to produce square waves of frequencies f.sub.1 and f.sub.2 respectively, where f.sub.1 is near 2.5 Hz, and f.sub.2 is near 1/2 Hz. The outputs 84 and 85 of the timers are connected to the inputs of an AND gate 86. The output 87 of the AND gate features a square wave of frequency f.sub.1, amplitude modulated by a square wave of frequency f.sub.2, as indicated by the pulse train 88.

The very low frequency waves needed for the acoustic stimulation of the vestibular nerve may also be provided by a sound system in which weak subaudio pulses are added to audible audio program material. This may be done in the customary manner way of adding the currents from these signals at the inverting input of an operational amplifier. The amplitude of the pulses is chosen such that the strength of the resulting acoustic pulses lies in the effective intensity window. Experiments in our laboratory have shown that the presence of audible signals, such as music or speech, does not interfere with the excitation of sensory resonances.

The invention can also be implemented as a sound tape or CD ROM which contains audible audio program material together with subliminal subaudio signals. The recording can be done by mixing the audio and subaudio signals in the usual manner. In choosing the subaudio signal level, one must compensate for the poor frequency response of the recorder and the electronics, at the ultra low subaudio frequencies used.

The pathological oscillatory neural activity involved in epileptic seizures and Parkinson’s disease is influenced by the chemical milieu of the neural circuitry involved. Since the excitation of a sensory resonance may cause a shift in chemical milieu, the pathological oscillatory activity may be influenced by the resonance. Therefore, the acoustic excitation discussed may be useful for control and perhaps treatment of tremors and seizures. Frequent use of such control may afford a treatment of the disorders by virtue of facilitation and classical conditioning.

In this as well as in the detuning method discussed before, an epileptic patient can switch on the acoustic stimulation upon sensing a seizure precursor.

Since the autonomic nervous system is influenced by the 1/2 sensory resonance, the acoustic excitation of the resonance may be used for the control and perhaps the treatment of anxiety disorders.

The invention can be embodied as a nonlethal weapon that remotely induces disorientation and other discomfort in targeted subjects. Large acoustic power can be obtained easily with acoustic monopoles of the type depicted in FIG. 3 or FIG. 12. If considerable distance needs to be maintained to the subject, as in a law enforcement standoff situation illustrated in FIG. 8, several monopoles can be used, and it then may become important to have phase differences between the acoustic signals of the individual monopoles arranged in such a manner as to maximize the amplitude of the resultant acoustic signal at the location 52 of the subject. Shown are four squad cars 53, each equiped with an acoustic monopole capable of generating atmospheric pulses of a frequency appropriate for the excitation of sensory resonances. The relative phases of the emitted pulses are arranged such as to compensate for differences of acoustic path lengths 54, such that the pulses arrive at the subject location 52 with substantially the same phase, resulting in constructive interference of the local acoustic waves. Such arrangement can be achieved easily by using radio signals between the monopole units, with the target distances either dialed in manually or measured automatically with a range finder. The subaudio acoustic signals can easily penetrate into a house through an open window, a chimney, or a crack under a closed door.

Some of our experiments on acoustic excitation of sensory resonances which provide a basis for the present invention will be discussed presently. Of all the responses to the excitation of the 1/2 Hz resonance, ptosis of the eyelids stands out for distinctness, ease of detection, and sensitivity. When voluntary control of the eyelids is relinquished, the eyelid position is determined by the relative activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. There are two ways in which ptosis can be used as an indicator that the autonomic system is being affected. In the first, the subject simply relaxes the control over the eyelids, and makes no effort to correct for any drooping. The more sensitive second method requires the subject to first close the eyes about half way. While holding this eyelid position, the eye are rolled upward, while giving up voluntary control of the eyelids. With the eyeballs turned up, ptosis will decrease the amount of light admitted to the eyes, and with full ptosis the light is completely cut off. The second method is very sensitive because the pressure excerted on the eyeballs by partially closed eyelids increases parasympathetic activity. As a result, the eyelid position becomes somewhat labile, exhibiting a slight flutter. The labile state is sensitive to small shifts in the activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. The method works best when the subject is lying flat on the back and is facing a moderately lit blank wall of light color.

The frequency at which ptosis is at a maximum is called the ptosis frequency. This frequency depends somewhat on the state of the nervous and endocrine systems, and it initially undergoes a downward drift, rapid at first and slowing over time. The ptosis frequency can be followed in its downward drift by manual frequency tracking aimed at keeping ptosis at a maximum. At a fixed frequency, the early ptosis can be maintained in approximately steady state by turning the acoustic stimulation off as soon as the ptosis starts to decrease, after which the ptosis goes through an increase followed by a decline. The acoustic stimulation is turned back on as soon as the decline is perceived, and the cycle is repeated.

At fixed frequencies near 1/2 Hz, the ptosis cycles slowly up and down with a period ranging upward from about 3 minutes, depending on the precise acoustic frequency used. The temporal behavior of the ptosis frequency is found to depend on the acoustic pulse intensity; the drift and cycle amplitude are smaller near the low end of the effective intensity window. This suggests that the drift and the cycling of the ptosis frequency is due to chemical modulation, wherein the chemical milieu of the neural circuits involved affects the resonance frequency of these circuits, while the milieu itself is influenced by the resonance in delayed fashion. Pertinent concentrations are affected by production, diffusion, and reuptake of the substances involved. Because of the rather long characteristic time of the ptosis frequency shift, as shown for instance by the cycle period lasting 3 minutes or longer, it is suspected that diffusion plays a rate-controlling role in the process.

The resonance frequencies for the different components of the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance have been measured, using acoustic sine waves with a sound pressure of 2.times.10.sup.-9 N/m.sup.2 at the subject’s left ear. Ptosis reached a steady state at a frequency of 0.545 Hz. Sexual excitement occurred at two frequencies, 0.530 Hz and 0.597 Hz, respectively below and above the steady-state ptosis frequency. For frequencies of 0.480 Hz and 0.527 Hz the subject fell asleep, whereas tenseness was experienced in the range from 0.600 to 0.617 Hz.

The resonance near 2.5 Hz may be detected as a pronounced increase in the time needed to silently count backward from 100 to 70, with the eyes closed. The counting is done with the “silent voice” which involves motor activation of the larynx appropriate to the numbers to be uttered, but without passage of air or movement of mouth muscles. The motor activation causes a feedback in the form of a visceral stress sensation in the larynx. Counting with the silent voice is different from merely thinking of the numbers, which does not produce a stress sensation, and is not a sensitive detector of the resonant state. The larynx stress feedback constitutes a visceral input into the brain and may thus influence the amplitude of the resonance. This unwanted influence is kept to a minimum by using the count sparingly in experiment runs. Since counting is a cortical process, the 2.5 Hz resonance is called a cortical sensory resonance, in distinction with the autonomic resonance that occurs near 1/2 Hz. In addition to affecting the silent counting, the 2.5 Hz resonance is expected to influence other cortical processes as well. It has also been found to have a sleep inducing effect. Very long exposures cause dizziness and disorientation. The frequency of 2.5 Hz raises concerns about kindling of epileptic seizures; therefore, the general public should not use the 2.5 Hz resonance unless this concern has been laid to rest through further experiments.

The sensitivity and numerical nature of the silent count makes it a very suitable detector of the 2.5 Hz sensory resonance. It therefore has been used for experiments of frequency response and effective intensity window. In these experiments, rounded square wave acoustic pulses were produced with a frequency that was slowly diminished by computer, and the subject’s 100-70 counting time was recorded for certain frequencies. The acoustic transducer was a small loudspeaker mounted in a sealed cabinet such as to provide acoustic monopole radiation. At fixed frequency, the acoustic monopole strenght in m.sup.3 /s varies linearly with the voice coil current, with a constant of proportionality that can be calculated from measured speaker dome excursions for given currents. The sound pressure level at the entrance of the subject’s nearest external ear canal can be expressed in terms of the acoustic monopole strength and the distance from the loudspeaker. For each experiment run, the sound pressure level at the entrance of the subject’s external ear canal can thus be calculated from the measured amplitude of the voice coil current and the pulse frequency. Since for the subaudio frequencies the distance from the acoustic radiator to the subject’s ear is much smaller than the wavelength of the sound, the near-field approximation was used in this calculation. The sound pressure level was expressed in dB relative to the reference sound pressure of 2.times.10.sup.-5 N/m.sup.2. This reference pressure is traditionally used in the context of human hearing, and it represents about the normal minimum human hearing threshold at 1.8 KHz.

FIG. 9 shows the result of experiment runs at sound pressure levels of -67, -61, -55, and -49 dB. Plotted are the subject’s 100-70 counting time versus pulse frequency in a narrow range near 2.5 Hz. Resonance is evident from the sharp peak 57 in the graph for the sound pressure level of -61 dB. The graphs also reveal the effective intensity window for the stimulation, as can be seen by comparing the magnitude of the peaks for the different sound pressure levels. For increasing intensity, the magnitude of the peak first increases but then decreases, and no significant peak shows up in the graph for the largest sound pressure of -49 dB; this can be seen better from the insert 58, which shows the graphs for -67 and -49 dB in a magnified scale. It follows that the effective intensity window extends approximately from -73 to -49 dB, in terms of the sound pressure level at the entrance of the subject’s external ear canal.

The physiological response to the 2.5 Hz acoustic stimulation can be avoided by wearing earplugs. FIG. 10 is a plot of the 100-70 counting time versus acoustic pulse frequency, with and without earplugs. The sound pressure level at the entrance of the subject’s external ear canal was -6 dB for both runs. Without earplugs the counting time has the peak 59, but no significant peak is seen in graph 60 for the run in which the subject used earplugs. Two conclusions can be reached from these results. First, in the experiments the 2.5 Hz resonance is essentially excited acoustically rather than through the magnetic field induced by the voice coil currents in the loudspeaker. Second, it follows that the exciting sound essentially propagates via the external ear canal, instead of through the skin and bones in the area of the ears, or via cutaneous mechanoreceptors in the skin at large.

To answer the question whether the acoustic excitation of the 2.5 Hz sensory resonance occurs perhaps through the cochlear nerve, one needs to consider the human auditory threshold curve such as shown, for instance, by Thomson (1967). The curve has a minimum near 1.8 KHz where the threshold sound pressure level is 0 dB, by definition. At 10 Hz the threshold is 105 dB. Hence, the pronounced acoustic excitation of the sensory resonance shown in FIG. 9 for a sound pressure level of -61 dB is 166 dB below the auditory threshold at 10 Hz. The excitation occurs near 2.5 Hz, and at that frequency, the auditory threshold is even higher than at 10 Hz. Although the curve in Thomson’s book does not go below 10 Hz, linear extrapolation suggests the estimate of 135 dB for the threshold at 2.5 Hz, bringing the sound pressure level that is effective for acoustic excitation of the sensory resonance to 196 dB below the estimated threshold at the frequency near 2.5 Hz used. This result all but rules out excitation via the cochlear nerve.

Chemical modulation may be the cause for the small frequency difference for peaks 57 and 59 in FIGS. 9 and 10, for the sound pressure level of -61 dB; these peaks occur respectively at 2.516 and 2.553 Hz.

The physiological response to the excitation of the sensory resonances at a fixed stimulus frequency is not immediate but builds over time. An example is shown in FIG. 11, where the graph 61 depicts the measured 100-70 time plotted versus elapsed time, upon application of acoustic pulses of 2.558 Hz frequency and a sound pressure level of -61 dB. The graph shows that the response is initially delayed over about 5 minutes; thereafter it increases, and at about 22 minutes the slope is seen to decrease somewhat. Other experiments have shown a counting time that eventually settles on a plateau, or even starts on a decline. Chemical modulation and habituation could account for these features. The response curve depends strongly on initial conditions.

The method is expected to be effective also on certain animals, and applications to animal control are therefore envisioned. The nervous system of mammals is similar to that of humans, so that the sensory resonances are expected to exist, albeit with different frequencies. Accordingly, in the present invention subjects are mammals.

The described method and apparatus can be used beneficially by the general public and in clinical work. Unfortunately however, there is the possibility of mischievous use as well. For instance, with small modifications the method of FIG. 1 can be employed to imperceptibly modulate the air flow in air conditioning or heating systems that serve a home, office building, or embassy, for covert manipulation of the nervous systems of occupants.

The invention is not limited by the embodiments shown in the drawings and described in the specification, which are given by way of example and not of limitation, but only in accordance with the scope of the appended claims.


P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, METHODS OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1953