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Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energy (Allan Frey, Science, Vol. 181, 27 July 1973, pp. 356-358)

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 16/09/2011

Human Perception of Illumination with Pulsed

Ultrahigh-Frequency Electromagnetic Energy

Abstract. A psychophysical study of the perception of “sound” induced by illumination with pulse-modulated, ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic energy indicated that perception was primary dependent upon peak power and secondarily dependent upon pulse width. The average power did not significantly affect perception. Perceived characteristics of pitch and timbre appeared to be functions of modulation.

Field tests with radar indicate that humans and cats perceive low-power pulse-modulated, radio-frequency (rf) energy (1-3). Human subjects reported they perceived “sounds” that were in the nature of buzzes and hisses. The energy perceived was not acoustic energy; rather, it was electromagnetic (EM) energy in the ultrahigh-frequency (UHF) band of the spectrum. These findings can be related to other reports of sensory and behavioral phenomena associated with low-power rf energy. Analytical reviews of these and other reports and implications of the reviewed reports that bear on our understanding of information transfer and storage in living organisms can be found in the literature (3-5)

In the field tests with radar, A.H.F> determined the portion of the EM spectrum that was effective in inducing the “sounds” and the approximate thresholds. Perception occurred when the subject was illuminated with energy from approximately that portion of the EM spectrum defined as the UHF band, that is from 0.3 to 3 GHz (6) This is the portion of the spectrum at which EM energy passes into and through the head. At higher frequencies the energy is largely absorbed by the skin, and at lower frequencies it tends to be reflected by the body (2). An approximate threshold for perception, when the subject was in a noisy environment, occurred at a peak power density of 267 mw/cm² and an average power density of 0.4 mw/cm² . The data suggested that the average power was not an important variable, but no definitive statement about its role in perception could be made. The perception had the following characteristics, (.i) it did not involve an energy transduction of EM to acoustic energy, for example, by fillings in the teeth; (ii) it differed from the electrophonic effect; and (iii) it could not be accounted for by an explanation involving radiation pressure against the skin (3, 4).

The field studies raised questions that could not be answered at that time because of lack of suitable laboratory sources of rf energy. Suitable rf energy sources are now available. Thus, we address ourselves to the following questions.

Is perceived loudness a function of peak power, average power, or both ?

What is the required energy density for perceptual threshold ?

Is there a minimal or optimal pulse width ?

Are there modulation characteristics that yield the perception of pitch ?

We performed a series of psychophysical experiments with humans placed in an rf anechoic chamber. The rf anechoic chamber constructed of rf energy absorber (Eccosorb FR 340) minimised rf energy reflections. The EM energy source was a pulse signal source (Applied Microwave Laboratory) emitting energy at a carrier frequency of 1.245 GHz. The energy was conveyed by air line (General Radio model 874) and RG-8 coaxial cable to a coax-to waveguide adaptor (Scientific Atlanta model 11-1.1) and standard-gain horn antenna (7).

The horn antenna emitted the energy within the rf anechoic chamber. The antenna was orientated such that the energy was vertically polarised, although pilot experiments indicated that horizontally polarised energy yielded similar data. The rf parameters used are shown in table 1. The pulse repetition rate was selected so that it produced a buzzing “sound”

Table 1 Radio frequency parameters used at each test condition. A pulse rate of 50 pulses per second was used in each case. The constant values shown were rounded for clarity.

Test                 Peak                 Average          Pulse
condition            power                power            width
number              (mw/cm2)              (mw/cm2)         (usec)

Peak  power  varied

1 90 0.32 70 2 105 0.32 60 3 125 0.32 50 4 210 0.32 30 5 315 0.32 20 6 630 0.32 10 6a 630 1.26 40

Average power varied

1 370 0.19 10 2 370 0.37 20 3 370 0.55 30 4 370 0.93 50 5 370 1.11 60 6 370 1.29 70

All rf energy measurements reported here were taken with a half-wave dipole antenna located where the centre of the subjects head was placed during data collection. The dipole antenna was supported by a wooden pole in order to minimise field disturbance during measurement. The dipole was connected by an RG-58 coaxial cable to an attenuator (Microlab model AF 20) outside the chamber. The attenuator was connected to a thirmistor mount (Hewlett-Packard model 430C) The cable within the chamber was oriented for minimum field disturbance. This measurement equipment yields an average power measurement from which the peak power is derived by the standard duty cycle formula (8) The signal attenuation due to the cable and to the attenuator is accounted for in the reported measurements. There is an inherent and unspecifiable error in the EM field-distorting effect of the measuring instrument and the biological object.

The psychophysical technique of magnitude estimation was used in these experiments. Four trained subjects with clinically normal hearing were tested individually within the rf anschoic chamber. The subject sat on a wooden stool with his back to the horn antenna. We fixed his head in space by having him place his chin on an acrylic rest mounted on a vertical wooden pole. He used a multikey hand switch to signal a number as a report of the loudness he perceived. The subject was told that the first rf sound he would hear in each trial would be a reference sound that was assigned the number 100 and that the second sound he heard would differ in loudness from trial to trial. It was the subject’s task to assign a number to the loudness of the second rf sound with reference to the first rf sound. The reference fr sound was selected as being approximately in the middle loudness range. A brief dim light signaled the subject that a trial would begin. After a variable period of up to 5 seconds, the reference rf sound was presented for 2 seconds. A silent period of approximately 5 seconds followed, and then the rf sound of variable loudness was presented for 2 seconds. The subject would then indicate with the hand switch the number he assigned to the loudness. On some occasions, in order to account for the possibility of false positives, no rf sound was presented at the time that the variable rf sound should have been presented. Before starting a session, the subject was given two warm up trials. Each test condition (Table 1) is defined by a specific peak power, average power, pulse width, and pulse repetition rate. We randomised the order of presentation of these sets of rf parameter by using a table of random numbers. There were three randomised repetitions of the series.

The results are presented in Fig 1.

Fig 1 (A) Perceived loudness plotted as a function of peak power. The data from each subject consisted of three repetitions of each set of rf parameters shown under each test condition in Table 1. The average power was held constant by decreasing the pulse width while raising the peak power. (B) Perceived loudness plotted as a function of average power for the same subjects as in (A). The average power was increased by increasing the pulse width while holding peak constant.

The point plotted for each test condition number represents the median of all subjects and all repetitions. The graph shown in Fig 1A was derived from the results of a test series in which we studied the effect of varying the peak power while holding the average power constant, as specified in Table 1. The average power as held constant by varying the pulse width. The graph shown in Fig 1B was derived from the results obtained in a series of tests in which the average power was allowed to vary while the peak power was held constant, as specified in Table 1. The data obtained were reliable, as is typical from trained subjects in psychophysical experiments. The curves fitted to the data are estimations and are intended only as a guide for the reader’s eye. The precise shape or slope of the curves will require many more studies for definition because of the sensitivity of judgements of sensory magnitude to details of experimental procedure (9).

Once a minimum pulse width is used, perceived loudness is a function of peak power (Fig 1, A and B). The location of the point for test condition 6 is in consistent with what would be expected. The data represented by this point were obtained when a 10-µsec pulse width was used. Since a consideration of all data shown in Fig 1 indicates that this pulse width is outside the optimal band for loudness, we tested the possibility that the apparent inconsistency was due to the use of a nonoptimal pulse width. We therefore presented to the subjects the same peak power, but with a pulse width within the optimal band, that is, 40µsec. The average of the data so obtained is represented by the square labelled a in Fig 1A. Its location indicates that the apparent decrease in perceived loudness at test condition 6 is due more to the pulse width being less than optimal than to an actual decrease in perceived loudness at the high peak power level. The data plotted in Fig 1B indicate that, in addition to an apparent minimum pulse width, there may be a maximum pulse width defining an optimal band of pulse widths for perceived loudness. It appears that average power does not determine loudness except when it is incidentally involved in producing a minimum pulse width for optimal effect.

In one test series, we varied the average power by changing the pulse repetition rate while holding the pulse width constant. We found that the quality of the sound is in part determined by the repetition rate. The subjects reported sounds that had pitch as well as timbre characteristics. This confused subjects who were instructed to judge loudness. The data do not support the hypothesis of radiation pressure against the skin conveyed by bone conduction to the ear; the energy available is far below the threshold for bone conduction. Nor do the data support a mechanism involving radiation pressure against the tympanic membrane, external auditory meatus, or round window. For example, there are no significant effects of changing head orientation as would be expected if radiation pressure was an important factor. Moreover, a series in which the Gelle test (10) was used with plastic air tubes yielded negative results for rf sound and positive results for acoustic sound.

In summary, the perceived loudness of the rf sound as judged by the magnitude estimation technique, and within the limitation of the rf parameters investigated here, is a function of peak power rather than average power. Calculations from the data presented indicate that in this particular experiment, the peak power required for perception is somewhat less than 80 mw/cm². A band of optimal pulse widths seems to exist for the effect. There are also rf modulation parameters that cause subjects hearing “sounds” with definite pitch and timbre characteristics

Allan H Frey

Rodman Messenger, Jr.

References and Notes.

# . A. H. Frey, Aerosp. Med. 32, 1140 (1961)
# . ——-, J. Appl. Physiol. 17,689 (1962)
# . ——–,Psychol, Bull. 63, 322 (1965)
# . ———,Inst, Elec. Electron. Eng. Eng. Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-19, 153 (1971)
# . A. Pressman, Electromagnetic Fields and Life ,(Plenum, New York, 1970); K. Marha, J. Musil, H. Tuha, Electronic Fields and the Life Environment (San Francisco Press, San Francisco, 1971)
# . R. Graf, Modern Dictionary of Electronics (Sams, Indianapolis, ed. 2, 1963)
# . W. Slayton, Electronics (July 1955), p. 150.
# . Peak power is equal to the average power divided by the duty cycle.
# . R. M. Warren, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 48, 1397 (1970)
# . The Gelle test procedure is dependent on the fact that any force exerting sudden inward pressure on the stapes pushes the ossicles further into the oval window. This increases intralabyrinthine pressure and reduces sound perception, irrespective of whether the sound wave has reached the tympanum by air conduction or by bone conduction.
# . This work was supported by the US Office of Naval Research and the US Army.

7 February 1972: revised 5 April 1973.


Radio Waves and Life (Electronics Magazine: September 1960)

Posted in Uncategorized by ce399 on 16/09/2011

Radio Waves & Life
by Tom Jaski
Electronics – September 1960

In a recent editorial (August, 1959), Hugo Gernsback called for a serious reappraisal of the effects of radio waves on human and animal physiology. In view of the almost casual use of high-power radar and industrial RF (radio frequency) heating equipment, this is certainly a timely word of warning.

It is not surprising then that the Air Force is already keenly aware of these problems, and has a number of projects under way to discover the exact effects of high-intensity radar pulses and microwaves on human and animal tissue. These projects are being carried out at our major universities, each specializing in one particular frequency. For example, the project at the University of California, under the direction of Prof. Charles Susskind, is primarily investigating the effects of 3-CM radar energy. Test subjects are mice, ants, and yeast cells.

Thermal Effects

Of great importance, and therefore under intensive investigation, are the thermal effects of such waves, and these have been measured rather precisely under a variety of conditions.

Using mice as subjects, it was found that near-lethal doses of radiation do not seem to cause any pathological changes in them, and that the lethal effect is primarily an overtaxing of the mice’s temperature-balancing system. It was found that the major heating effect took place immediately under the skin, but of course heat generated there is rapidly distributed through the body. The temperature of the mice was monitored continuously.

The photograph shows zoologist Susan Prausnitz monitoring the temperature of a mouse suspended in the wire cage right in front of the waveguide just visible on the left. The mouse is slowly rotated to insure even radiation over the entire body. Death occurred in 50% of the mice when a critical temperature of 44.1 Centrigrade was reached.

Other interesting findings include the fact that radar waves appear to have no significant effect on the fertility of the male mice. The effects of radar waves on the longevity of the mice are currently being investigated.

An intensive series of experiments was carried out on cellular organisms, such as yeast cells, but, other than showing thermal effects, the experiments with insects such as ants delivered relatively minor data.

But one interesting item which emerged was that the ants, normally moving every which way, in a Petri dish, will all line up in a 3-CM field, aligning their antennas parallel to the field, apparently to minimize the effects.

The project is continuing, and more research on mice, ants and other animals is contemplated. Psychological effects will be looked into. One promising item in the ant experiments was that the ants which were exposed to 3-CM waves apparently lost the ability, at least temporarily, to communicate the source of food to their fellows, as ants usually do.

It may be significant that the large ants used have antennas which measure very nearly one-fourth the wavelength of the 3-CM radiation.

Incidentally, mice are so frequently used for this kind of experiment because they are easily handled, easily obtained and relatively inexpensive, while their physiology and metabolism bear a useful resemblance to human counterparts in some ways. The life span of a mouse is limited, permitting experimenters to evaluate genetic effects over several generations.

Meanwhile other service branches are carrying out research programs concerned with the effects of radio waves on animal life, not necessarily limited to radar frequencies.

A public announcement by scientists at the National Institute for Neurological Diseases concerning the LETHAL EFFECTS of 388-MC radio waves on monkeys also shows there is great interest in other frequencies and effects BESIDES THERMAL.

Some Early Reports

As long ago as 1930, Nrunori claims to have seen evidence that the human organism “radiates” and “reacts to” radio waves of 2.33 meters and its harmonics — in other words: 129, 258, 387 and 596 MC (megacycles i.e. million cycles per second).

This brings to mind the work of a man who started publishing articles on this kind of subject more than 35 years ago. An Italian university professor named Cazzamalli placed human subjects in a shielded room, subjected them to high-frequency radio waves, and claimed to be able to record a “beat” which, he RECEIVED ON A SIMPLE UNTUNED RECEIVER consisting of a galena crystal, a small capacitor, antenna and sensitive galvanometer. Cazzamalli’s equipment, as well as it can be determined from his early articles, is shown in Fig. 1.

The one item which he never mentions, perhaps because he could not accurately determine it, is the POWER OF HIS TRANSMITTER.

He published oscillograms purportedly showing VARIATIONS of the “beats” when his subjects were EMOTIONALLY AROUSED OR ENGAGED IN CREATIVE EFFORTS.

Later experiments delivered much more startling results: he found that some of his subjects would HALLUCINATE under the influence of the high-frequency radio waves, which ranged all the way up to 300 MC.

The Cazzamalli experiments were carefully duplicated with modern equipment, of much greater sensitivity than his. His “oscillatori telegrafica” (presumably a transmitter as used for wireless telegraphy) was replaced with a very modest low-power oscillator. The reason for this was twofold.

In the first place, university authorities take a very dim view of experiments on human beings, even if these subjects are the scientists themselves, volunteering for the part.

Second, a previous experiment had indicated in a rather startling way that POWER WAS NOT REQUIRED TO EVOKE EFFECTS IN THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM. In fact, there seemed to be SOME SORT OF RESONANT FREQUENCY APPLICABLE TO EACH INDIVIDUAL HUMAN.

Effects on Humans

That experiment was suggested by the behavior of the monkeys we cited. These animals went through a sequence of behavior which would indicate that something besides thermal effects was operating.

To discover if this “something” was subjectively noticeable by an individual, a weak oscillator swept through the band of 300 to 600 MC with the request that the subject indicate any points at which he might notice anything unusual. The subjects were not allowed to see the dial.

AT A PARTICULAR FREQUENCY BETWEEN 380 TO 500 MC FOR DIFFERENT SUBJECTS, they repeatedly indicated a point with ALMOST UNBELIEVABLE ACCURACY (as many as 14 out of 15 times).

Subsequent experiments with the same subjects showed that at the “individual” frequency, STRANGE THINGS WERE FELT. Asked to describe the experience, all subjects agreed there was a definite “pulsing” in the brain, ringing in the ears and a DESIRE TO PUT THEIR TEETH INTO THE NEAREST EXPERIMENTER.

The oscillator in this case was putting out only MILLIWATTS OF POWER, and WAS PLACED SEVERAL FEET FROM THE SUBJECT.

Optical and Growth Effects

It was not the first time that such phenomena had been observed. Van Everdingen, a Dutch scientist, had discovered many years ago that radiation would affect the heartbeat of chicken embryos, when he was experimenting with the effects of high-frequency radiation on growth (specifically working toward any effect it might have on malignant growths).

Van Everdingen used 1,875 MC and 3,000 MC and discovered that this kind of radiation WOULD CHANGE THE OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A GLYCOGEN SOLUTION.

Glycogen is a substance which provides our muscles with energy! Van Everdingen found that this change of optical polarization had some CONNECTION WITH TUMOR GROWTH. He proceeded to RE-ROTATE THE POLARIZATION IN EXTRACTS OBTAINED FROM TUMOR-PRODUCING MICE.

When this optically “pure” substance was injected into mice with malignant tumors, and these mice were kept on a diet free of animal fats, THE TUMORS WOULD CEASE TO GROW. Only radiation at UHF (ultra-high) or SHF (super-high frequency) would produce these effects in the substances he used.

But Van Everdingen was not the only one who discovered important facts about radiation on living tissues. Years before, a Frenchman name Lakhovsky claimed to have removed tumors from patients with high-frequency radiation treatments, and his book, THE SECRET OF LIFE, has a number of attestations in it from grateful patients who were cured.

Lakhovsky stated that healthy plant growth is materially aided BY PLACING A COPPER RING ABOUT 8 INCHES IN DIAMETER and supported on an insulating wooden stick (Fig. 2) AROUND THE PLANT.

So-called tumerous growths on plants disappeared withing such a ring. Lakhovsky’s experiment with plants has been duplicated successfully. But then we should also note that the same kind of thing has been done by a group of devout citizens using GROUP PRAYER!

But the people who have published the most data on the subject of UHF radiation effects on animals and human subjects are the Russians. In BIOFISICA, the Russian biophysics journal, a scientist named Livshits published two survery articles on the work that had been in this field by 1958 and 1959. They are too extensive to repeat in great detail here, but some of the more impressive highlights will be reported.

Many experiments were carried out on animals with conditioned reflexes, and one by Glezer showed that a WEAK UHF FIELD would INHIBIT THE CONDITIONED REFLEX, indicating that some inhibition of the cortex was taking place.

As in Van Everdingen’s experiment with chicken eggs, Pardzhanidze showed that the EEG’s of rabbits were DRASTICALLY CHANGED WHEN THE ANIMALS WERE SUBJECTED TO A UHF FIELD. Bludova, Kurilova and Tikhonova showed that the field produced AN INCREASE OF SENSITIVITY IN THE RETINA, and simultaneously REDUCED THE AREA OF COLOR SENSITIVITY.

It is interesting to speculate how this would correlate with the Land effects. (Land, of Polaroid camera fame, has shown recently that our concepts of three-color vision seems to depend primarily on the presence of two images STIMULATED BY TWO DIFFERENT FREQUENCIES OF LIGHT!)

Turlygin similarly showed that the sensitivity of the eyes of dark-adapted subjects at marginal levels was INCREASED AS MUCH AS 100% BY THE PRESENCE OF A UHF FIELD.

Nerve Effects

Of importance in the light of Lakhovsky’s claims is the experiment by Grigoreva, who showed that short exposures to UHF would EXPEDITE THE REGROWTH OF SEVERED NERVE TISSUE, while prolonged exposure would SUPPRESS THE REGROWTH.

A fact discovered many years ago is that a UHF field will have an ANALGESIC (pain-reducing) effect on nerves, and radiation therapy of patients with painful diseases such as arthritis is fairly common practice here and abroad.

If the field gets very intense, the situation reverses, and the effects on the nerves can be extremely painful, as Lebedinskii reports.

Numerous experiments are cited which deal with the simultaneous effects of various kinds of drugs, stimulants and toxins, and UHF fields. Many of these deal with very specific reactions and conditions, and any generalization would be rather meaningless. One particularly was of interest because of its relation to the experiments of the late Pavlov, the father of the conditioned reflex.

This experiment shows that the field INCREASES THE SECRETION OF HISTAMINE IN THE STOMACH, and in related experiments that the secretion of digestive juice which was artificially stimulated by such drugs as atropine is MATERIALLY REDUCED BY THE FIELD.

Closer to home, we find that Hugh Fleming at Oregon State College carried out experiments on the effects of HIGH-FREQUENCY EFFECTS ON MICROORGANISMS. Fleming used radiation at frequencies varying from 10 meters to 90 CM (30 to 270 MC).

One result was that the RATE OF GROWTH OF CELLS WILL INCREASE to a certain power level, and then will SHARPLY DECREASE.

TIME OF EXPOSURE and CONDUCTIVITY OF THE MEDIUM are IMPORTANT VARIABLES (as was also discovered by Van Everdingen, who also found the VISCOSITY OF THE MEDIUM to be MOST IMPORTANT).

Summing it up

Now what does all this mean in terms of Mr. Gernsback’s warning statement?

If you consider the few items we have been able to quote (more detail can be found in the articles cited in the bibliographhy), it is obvious that WE ARE IN SOME WAY SUSCEPTIBLE TO RADIO WAVES, and that our susceptibility IS NOT NECESSARY LIMITED TO A PARTICULAR FREQUENCY. Nor are large amounts of power required to produce some of the effects within us.

But precisely what these effects are, we understand not at all. Van Everdingen points out that the possibility of molecular resonance, AFFECTING THE CHEMICAL BONDS in our very substance.

The egg experiments certainly indicate some sort of interference with the cortex (our “gray matter”) which MAY AFFECT OUR THINKING AND OUT CONTROL OVER THE “BASER” DRIVES (generally considered to be generated in the lower sections of the brain, but normally controlled or inhibited by the cortex).

Our physiological functions, such as our digestion, our ability to see and recover from damage when nerves are involved may well be drastically affected if we are subjected to a high enough power level.

Tumors may be inhibited BY THE PROPER KIND OF RADIO WAVERS yet, in other cases, particularly when coupled with the “wrong” kind of DIET, radiation may also PROMOTE THE GROWTH OF TUMORS. (This too was demonstrated by Van Everdingen in Holland).

WE DO NOT KNOW IF OUR LONGEVITY WILL BE AFFECTED. Certainly we should consider the possibility that there may be SOME RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INCREASE OF CANCER AND THE AMOUNT OF RADIATION we indiscriminately spew into the atmosphere.

Or even that there may be some connection between that radiation and our SHARPLY INCREASING CRIME RATES.

We simply do not know enough about the effects, but what little we do know would tend to make Mr. Gernsback’s warning all the more urgent.

For while there is nothing lethal about the doses of radio-frequency energy we absorb daily, neither is there anything lethal in the STEADY DRIP OF WATER ON A MAN’S FOREHEAD — but it was effectively used by medieval torturers to drive him completely out of his mind.

Perhaps we have a responsibility to mankind, before we fill in all the gaps in the radio spectrum, to discover once and for all if we are affecting human life on this planet. And if so, in what manner, as we finally had to do for another surprise out of Pandora’s box, man-made radioactivity.


F. Cazzamalli

— “Electromagnetic Radiation Phenomena from Human Cerebrum During Intense Activity of Creative Artistic Nature”, Neurologica, 1935.

— “Experiments, Discussions and Problems of Biophysics of Cerebrum”, Quaderni Di Psichiatria, 1929.

— “Telepsychic Phenomena and Radiation from Cerebrum”, Neurologica, 1923.

— “About a Phenomenon of Cerebropsychic Radiation and Biophysical Methods of Exploring It,” Neuropsychiatrica, 1934.

W.A.G. Van Everdingen

— “Molecular Changes of Structure Resulting from Irradiation with Hertzian Waves of Frequency of 1875 MC,” Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Nov. 40′

— “Molecular Changes and Modifications of Structure Resulting from Radiation with Hertzian Waves of Wavelength of 10 CM (frequency 3000 MC),” Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Jul. 41′

— “Changes in Physiochemical Nature of Organic Bonds by Irradiation, Mostly in Connection with the Cancer Problem,” Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, Feb. 43′

K. F. Grishina

— “Importance of Certain Points of Methods in Local Response of Tissues to Centimeter Waves,” Biophyzika, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 358-362, 1958

B. S. Jacobson, S. B. Prausnitz and C. Susskind

— “Investigation of Thermal Balance in Mammals by Means of Microwave Radiation,” Transactions on Medical Electronics Proceedings of the IRE, June, 1959

Frank, Leary

— “Researching Microwave Health Hazards,” Electronics, February, 1959

N. N. Livshits

— “Role of Nervous System in Reactions to Ultra-High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields,” Biofizika, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1957 (has a 96-item bibliography)

— “Effects of Ultra-High-Frequency Field on Functions of Nervous Systems,” Biofizika, Vol. 3, No. 4 pp. 426-436, 1958

A. S. Pressman

— “Methods of Experimentally Irradiating Small Animals with Centimeter Waves,” Biofizika, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 354-358, 1958

Hugh Fleming

— “Effects of High-Frequency Fields on Micro-Organisms,” Electrical Engineering, pp. 18-21, Jan. 1944

N. Nrunori and S. Torrisi

— “Ultra-High-Frequency Electromagnetic Vibrations, Their Effects on Living Organisms,” American Journal of Physical Therapy, Jun. 1930

P. Liebesy

— “Athermic Short Wave Therapy,” Archives of Physical Therapy, December, 1938

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